Abigail Scherer; EDTPA; Task 2

USE THINKING ORGANIZER

  • Part 1 of 4
  • In my lesson I demonstrated mutual respect for students through attentively listening to what they had to say without interrupting them. I encouraged them to ask questions, I welcomed their answers and did not make them feel like they were “wrong”. I provided the support needed through prompting questions to help them when their answers were not related to what we were discussing. I affirmed their ideas and thanked them for participating. I treated all students equally and how I want to be treated. I did this through allowing each student who raised their hand a chance to share their ideas of what was similar/different in our classroom and the one in the book.
  • I demonstrated rapport with students through attentively listening to what they had to say and responding to what they had to say. I responded through nodding my head in agreeance, saying “Yes! I like how you identified that both classrooms have water tables, good job paying attention to the details!” or “You’re right, Lisa! We don’t have any animals in our classroom, but they did have animals in their classroom in the book we read!”. If the student was trying to answer and didn’t remember what they wanted to say. I provided helpful prompts to aid them in answering the question, for example “Joey, what is something that both classrooms play with on the play ground?”. I made students feel safe to answer by not shutting them down or ignoring what they had to say. I strive to make the students feel like I understood them and valued what they had to say by listening and responding to them in a loving, caring way.
  • I was responsive to students’ needs through observing them and watching their nonverbal body language, or their verbal language. I had one student who couldn’t see the book because they were to far back. I made a spot for them to come up closer on the rug and told the students I would leave the book up on the easel if they wanted to read it or do a picture walk later. I tried to respond to students questions throughout. I had a child need to go to the bathroom. I responded by telling them they could go to the bathroom, they just needed to come right back. I was aware of who I had called on and who hadn’t had a turn yet.
  • Challenging students to engage in learning. I did this through allowing all children to have equal opportunities to share their ideas or thoughts. I gave the more “challenging students warnings and reminded them of the expectations when needed. I had students switch spots with a friend if they were being disruptive, to allow students a more focused learning time. The lesson was applicable to the students lives and allowed them to relate the information to their classroom, which engaged them in the learning.
Teacher Feedback
Abigail,
Make sure you give a specific example for each one, just like you did for the second and third bullet point. The first one is well written, you just need to give a specific example I would be able to see if I was watching the video tape. The challenging students to engage, I would probably stay away from behavior and discuss more the interventions you put into place to engage them in the activity.
Part 2 of 4

Refer to examples from the teaching event in your explanations. Explain how your instruction engaged students in meeting the objectives of the lesson.

  • My objective was, the student will listen attentively to the book and be able to respond appropriately. My instruction prepared my students for the objective through actively asking questions and discussing elements of the book throughout the reading of it. While I was reading the book I asked students prompting questions that encouraged them to respond to the literature through comparing and contrasting their classroom with the one in the book. I also made the instruction applicable and relevant to their lives through comparing the literature to their classroom.This also allowed the students respond appropriately because they were engaged with what was being taught because they could relate to it. This also The students were able to respond appropriately after reading the book because I had prepared them throughout the reading. They had heard plenty of examples from me as well as their peers throughout the reading of the book of responding appropriately to the literature.

Describe how your instruction linked students’ prior learning and personal, cultural, and community assets with new learning.

  • My lesson was linked to the students prior knowledge through the comparing and contrasting elements. The students had been practicing this in previous lessons and were building their ability to pay attention to the details that aid in comparing and contrasting. This lesson had them compare and contrast elements in the book to elements in their classroom. i.e. both classrooms have water tables. The classroom in the book has class pets, we do not in our classroom. The instruction was linked to the students personally through having them compare elements of their classroom to the literature. They were able to pick out things in their classroom that are special to them and see if a different classroom has those same items. Cultural and community elements were tied in through the literature. The book provided examples of diverse cultures through the children and details in classroom. In this lesson I brought culture and community together by talking about similarities and difference. Yet, regardless of the differences how we could all be friends and respect one another. Some of my student commented how they would like to be friends with the children in the book. This provided opportunity to discuss how we can be kind to our friends, through sharing and taking turns, which builds strong community.
  • TEACHER FEEDBACK 

    Abigail,

    What is your literacy strategy and requisite skill you’re teaching in the lesson? Make sure you explicitly state it in your commentary.

    Good post. I want to make sure you understand assets. Assets are what people value, so how to you use what the students, community and culture value in your lesson?

    Part 3 of 4

    Refer to examples from the teaching event in your explanations.  Explain how you elicited student responses to promote thinking.

    • Throughout my lesson I provided the students ample opportunities to respond to the text. One of the main goals of the lesson was having the students compare and contrast elements of the story to elements in their own classroom. I elicited student responses to promote thinking through asking prompting questions that aided the students in digging deeper into the details of the classroom in the book and their own classroom. For example; “Jenny, you said we don’t have a water table in our classroom, but they have one in their classroom. What is something in our classroom that could be used as a water table?” or “Melinda, you said we share with our friends just like the friends do in the book. Can you give me an example of how you share with your friends?”. Through asking and answering questions about the literature, this allowed the students to comprehend the material in deeper ways compared to if it was just read to them.  The book didn’t explicitly list all of the elements that made up their play ground. So, I had my students list the elements that make up their playground and come up with some ideas of what else could be in the other classroom’s play ground. Students were encouraged to look around in their classroom and think of things in their classroom that were not in the classroom in the story. The students were able to think through more details when provided with this opportunity. They noticed the posters/pictures on the wall that were in their classroom that weren’t in the classroom in the book we read.
    Explain how you modeled the literacy strategy and supported students as they practiced and applied the literacy strategy in a meaning-based context.
    • I modeled print directionality through following along under the words with my finger as a read. I also showed the students how literature carries meaning through relating, comparing and contrasting the elements in the literature to the students own classroom. I asked questions like “What do they have in their classroom that is on this page that we don’t have in our classroom. The students applied this same strategy through noting details that were absent in their classroom such as classroom pets, that were present in the classroom in the literature. We had open discussion comparing and contrasting our classroom with the one in the book which supported the students ability to relate meaning to literature.
     TEACHER FEEDBACK

    Abigail,

    Nice job giving specific examples and using the vocabulary in prompt one.  Make sure the modeling is about compare/contrast, if that is what your strategy is, which it seemed like it was in the first prompt.

    PART 4 of 4

    Refer to examples from the video clip/teaching event in your explanations. How did your instruction support learning for the whole class as well as for students who needed greater support or challenge?

    • My instruction supported the students learning through building on their poor knowledge of what comparing and contrasting it. I had a time for review before I began instruction to explain what comparing and contrasting elements in literature might look like. I also encouraged engagement from the students to also provide examples of their own. Though I had no students in my classroom that required additional support of an IEP or 504 plans. I did have two students who struggle paying attention. In order to support their learning, I made sure they were sitting where they were able to see the book that was being read and where I could easily watch them and provide support as needed. By moving the students to places where they are able to clearly see what is occurring will aid through engaging their attention while instruction is taking place.

    What changes would you make to your instruction to better support student learning of the central focus (e.g., missed opportunities)? 

    • Instead of just verbally discussing how the classroom in the book and our classroom were similar or different. I think it would have been extremely beneficial to incorporate visual aids. I wish I would have drawn a large venn diagram to be a visual representation of what we were doing. I would have also had the students each holding their own white board and have them draw the picture of the word we were talking about. For example: We’re talking about how our classroom has a rug and their classroom does not, I want you do draw the rug that we have in our classroom. OR Linda said that we have a turtle table in our classroom and the classroom in the book has a water table, can you draw these two pictures and the difference between them? When students had a new idea of similarities or differences, that is when I would have the students visually represent the ideas with pictures. After the children are done drawing their visual representation, we would discuss the details that made up the similarities/differences. Then I would record our findings onto our Venn diagram.

    Why do you think these changes would improve student learning? Support your explanation with evidence of student learning and principles from theory and/or research as appropriate.  Format your sources with APA citations.

    • I think this would improve the students learning because I would be using more than one mode of learning. Instead of basing everything off of verbal/auditory learning. Through visual representations and having the children draw their own pictures to represent what we’re talking about, it would be reaching more learners. I would be utilizing Gardner’s theory of Multiple intelligences. “By using the multiple intelligences approach in your classroom, you will provide opportunities for authentic learning based on your students’ needs, interests, and talents. The multiple intelligences classroom acts like the “real’ world. For example, the author and the illustrator of a book or the actor and the set builder in a play are equally valuable creators. Students become more active, involved learners” (Lunenburg, F. 2014, November 1). Through making the changes I have previously listed, I would not only be reaching different types of learners, but it would help the learners be making deeper connections. Through drawing visual representations, students are thinking of the color, and detail that make up that element. If they merely say; we have a turtle table and the other class as a water table. They are missing the details that make these items different or similar. Through making these changes in my lesson, I hope deepen students connections to the material through recognizing details. As well as, make the material more applicable, engaging and interesting to a wider range of learners.

    -Source-

    Lunenburg, F. (2014, November 1). Applying Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom: A Fresh Look at Teaching Writing. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY, 16, 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic Journal Volumes/Lunenburg, Fred C Applying Multiple Intelligences IJSAID V16 N1 2014.pdf

    TEACHER FEEDBACK

    Abigail,

    Your response to what you’d change is very well written. Great job of giving specific examples.

    How would they make deeper connections? Excellent, you answered it in your next sentence! Don’t state you “hope”. “Through making these changes in my lesson, my students would have a deeper connection with the material by recognizing details. As well as….” You should also include the word comprehension in here, since that is your focus, you need to bring it back to what really matters.

    Great post Abigail.

Advertisements

Abigail Scherer; EDTPA; Task 1

USE THINKING ORGANIZER

Part 1 of 4: Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching

       1. Based upon the position of the lesson within its unit, identify students’ prior learning, prerequisite skills, and understanding of the subject or content area related to the central focus of the lesson being taught.  What do students know, what can they do, and what are they learning to do?  What standards are you building upon? Identify your scope and sequence.

The central focus of this lesson is listening/responding to literature through comparison and contrasting events and elements in the literature that are present or absent in the students classroom. This lesson also aids in comprehension through linking the students personal interests and observations to the literature. The student will be able to make inferences throughout the book that aid in their ability to comprehend the literature. The students prior learning to best participate in this lesson includes how the students must understand that print carries meaning, student must be able to listen to a story being read and the student will know how to respond appropriately to questions. The student will be able to ask questions throughout the story, comparing and contrasting their classroom experience and the one in the book. In the week that this lesson is being taught and the week prior the students are learning about comparing and contrasting. I am teaching this lesson because it is building upon what they are learning through tangible examples that are relevant to their lives as individuals. The students understand how to make basic comparisons and understand the concept of contrasting when looking at two different stories. The students know how to look at a Venn diagram and answer the teachers prompting questions of, for example, “What classroom has books?” The students are able to recognize that there were books listed in the story and they also have books in their classroom. The students are also able to make general observations as well such as; “We do not have a classroom pet, but the classroom in the book did.”  However, a new concept being introduced through this lesson the teacher is modeling and encouraging the students to ask questions as they are listening to the to literature. Through this, the students are learning how to use the question strategy to aid in their comprehension of the literature. The standards that are being built upon; ELA-LITERACY.RL.K.10-Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. This will be done through the students actively listening to the book and responding to comprehension questions. The students will actively be looking for elements in the literature that are similar or different from their own classroom, which makes the learning relevant to their lives. This adds purpose and engagement from the students when they can relate to what is being taught. The students will be asking questions about the literature throughout the book . Another standard being built upon throughout this lesson will be; ELA-LITERACY.RL.K.1- With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. The students will be asked comprehension questions throughout this lesson about detail in the literature.The students will also be provided with opportunities to share their own questions throughout reading the literature to provide a greater understanding for them which will enhance their ability to comprehend the material. This lesson corresponds to scope and sequence of kindergarten through listening and speaking in allowing the students to share their ideas. Also through the Text-based comprehension through having the students compare and contrast.

2. Identify the personal/cultural/community assets (see your edTPA Handbook for definitions, if needed) related to the central focus of the lesson.  What do you know about your students’ everyday experiences, cultural backgrounds and practices, and interests?

The students of this urban, public elementary school have a predominantly Caucasian population. Within this particular school there are 373 students, 89% of the students are Caucasian, 5% are two or more ethnic descent, 4% are African American, 1% are Asian, and 1% are Hispanic. Of these students 48% are at a socioeconomic status where they are eligible and qualify for free or reduced lunch. 11% of the students throughout this school have a disability and 89% do not.  There are no students with IEPs, and none on 504 plans in the classroom that I am teaching in. One of the students in the particular Kindergarten class that this learning segment is being taught in, is doing a repeat of kindergarten due to missing a significant amount of schooling during the 2015-16 school year. Many of the students in this kindergarten class stay for the after school program each day. Students interests are high in the area of recreational entertainment through technology, whether it be videos, tablets, iPads or computer related.  Students share their enjoyment of music throughout the classroom, as music is integrated in much of their learning through songs and dance. The students enjoy playing outside and playing with their friends on the play ground. The students in this particular learning segment all have English as their primary language and non are of migrant status. These students are divided up into RTI (Response to Intervention) groups Monday through Thursday. The students are divided into three tiers based on their mastery of phonological, phonemic and phonics awareness. There are no known connections of socioeconomic or ethnic status linked to where children are placed. However, the students whose parents are involved and read with them appear to be in the more advanced tiers based on their regular practice of the material. All of the students in the particular Kindergarten class that this learning segment is being taught enjoy literature and have the ability to discuss the literature at basic levels. This lesson is related to these students because it is not only relevant to their lives, but it also is building upon their developing comprehension, questioning and discussion skills.

Teacher Feedback

Abigail,

Excellent job of describing what the student know and what has previously been taught. Great use of academic vocabulary. Well written response to 2a. However, you need to also address the students on IEP’s, 504’s and other groups of learners. I see that you do address this in the second prompt. Make sure you state there are no students on IEP’s, 504’s, etc in the class. If you don’t I assume you didn’t know you were supposed to include it.

Wow, great job on the research of the schools population Abigail! The second prompt is filled with great information, you now have to tie it to how this relates to the learning segment. You do this in the last statement, but it would have been beneficial to talk about how you’re integrating recreational entertainment into the lesson, how you’re building on what they are learning in their RTI groups, etc.

Part 2 of 4: Planning-Supporting Student Learning

1. Explain how your understanding of your students’ prior learning and personal/cultural/community assets guided your choice or adaptation of learning tasks and materials.

  • [After observing the students, I was able to gain an understanding of my students’ strengths, areas of needed growth, prior knowledge, and areas of behavior management. My goal in this lesson was to create a lesson to build upon the students prior knowledge through application of their prior knowledge. I wanted to create a lesson that was inclusive to all learners and could be adapted to meet every learners needs  All students in this  classroom have unique backgrounds, experiences and ideas to share. I was able to collaborate with the cooperating teacher, and through this was able to create a lesson that meet the need for diverse instruction to ensure that each and every student will meet the learning objectives for my lesson. Through observation, I noticed that all the students are eager to share and desire to be successful. When I was creating this lesson, I wanted every child to have the opportunity to practically apply what they are learning in comparing and contrasting. I know that they students have the capacity and ability to engage in a discussion and answer/ask questions relating to literature. Knowledge of this helped in creating my lesson plan. ]

2. Justify why your instructional strategies and planned supports are appropriate for the students with whom you are working. Use principles from research and/or theory to support/defend the instructional decisions you made during the planning stage of your lesson.  Use APA to format references. 

  • There is diversity in academic ability within this learning community. However, in the classroom for which I am working, all of the students first/primary language is English, there are no IEPs, socioeconomic factors do not seam to play big factors into the students learning. Over all, the students in the classroom that I am working are capable and able to stay on task with no special education services, the student just need to be redirected at times. In creating this lesson, I am building upon the students prior knowledge of the idea of comparing and contrasting and allowing them to apply what they have learned. Through this, I am providing opportunities for students to prove their competence and success in successfully comparing and contrasting their classroom to the one in the book. This goes along with Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority stage, where school and home provide opportunities for students to develop a sense of competence through success on challenging tasks (Eggen, P., & D. K., 2015, pg. 95). By knowing my students and their prior knowledge I knew they would be able to participate actively. I also incorporate modeling of the questioning comprehension strategy to potentially aid in students comprehension of the literature through forming inferences throughout the book.

3. Describe common preconceptions (based on prior learning and experiences) within your content focus that your students may have and how you will identify and address them.

  • The students may have the misconception that they can speak out and share their thoughts and opinions at any time, this is due to students at this age still being slightly egocentric and very focused on themselves. It could also be related to their parents allowing them to be in control and speak whenever they want. I would address this misconception through reminding students that I would love to hear what they have to say. However, I need them to raise their hands because I cannot understand what they are saying when they all talk at once and it is rude to interrupt the teacher. There could also be a misconception that books are merely stories. The students may not intellectually understand that literature can be related to their lives and that they can compare and contrast elements of the literature with elements of their life. This could be due to their basic understanding that print carries meaning, but they haven’t grasped how much meaning it can carry. I could correct this misconception through merely carrying out the lesson and after the students have compared elements of their classroom to the one in the book, point out that literature carries so much meaning and we can often relate it to our own lives.

Resources: 

Eggen, P., & D. K. (2015). Educational Psychology Enhanced Pearson Etext Access Card Windows on Classrooms (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson College Div.

Teacher Feedback:

3a. looks good, make sure you explicitly say what the learning task is, the associated learning and just include the research and how it supports your choice

3b. good, even though you don’t have any students on IEP’s, there must be lower students, what supports are you putting into place for those students?

3c. excellent and so true!

Part 3 of 4: Planning-Supporting Development through Language

Language Demand: Language Function. Identify one language function essential for student learning within your central focus.  Examples include, but are not limited to, analyze, explain, interpret, justify with evidence, compare/contrast, construct, describe, evaluate, examine, identify, and locate.  The edTPA handbook provides elaboration on language function.

Analyze Argue Categorize Compare/contrast Describe Explain
Interpret Predict Question Retell Summarize Construct
Classify Evaluate Examine Justify with Evidence Identify Locate
  • The central focus of this lesson is listening/responding to literature through comparison and contrasting events and elements in the literature that are present or absent in the students classroom. Throughout this lesson, the students will be asked questions and ask questions relating to the literature. They might what would happen next in the book or why certain details were in place. This helps them in their comparison and contrasting their classroom to the classroom in the story. When a student describes a way that they think their classroom is similar to the one in the book, I will ask them to explain their statements further by providing example. Such as;” They read in their classroom and so do we.” “What do you read in your classroom that they might read in theirs?” As I read the book, there will be a lot of questions and connections being made by the children. When I complete reading. I will ask the children to retell bits of the story through listing off the things that were in the classroom in the book that are not in our classroom and vise versa.

Identify a key learning task from your plans that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function you identified.  For example, if you selected examine, identify the key task when students will learn how to examine or will be expected to examine. 

  • Throughout reading the literature, students are to make observations about what was similar or different about the classroom in the book compared to their own classroom. This allows students to compare and contrast elements and details in their classroom with the classroom in the book. I will ask the students questions throughout the reading to promote their comprehension of the material and encourage them to ask questions to themselves as they listen to aid in comprehension. Students will be making connections to the literature through explaining ways in which their classroom is similar or different to the classroom being read about. The students will be asked to provide concrete examples in their explanations. i.e. We both have a purple rug in our classroom. They have pets in their classroom, however, we do not have any pets in our classroom. The students will be asked to retell details and elements that were present in the literature when they provide examples of similarities and differences between their classroom and the one in the book. The students will be asked to list their favorite part in the book and then be asked what they liked about it and why it was their favorite. This will provide further reflection and possibility to retell more elements of the literature.

Teacher Feedback

Abigail,

Use the thinking organizer to write this section, it shows you how you need to address 4 different areas in the one response. It also gives you specific wording for the commentary. You’re looking at 4a-d

Part 4 of 4: Planning-Monitoring Student Learning

Refer to the assessments you propose to align with this lesson’s learning objectives.  Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence of students’ understanding of the concepts taught throughout the learning segment.   Use principles from research and/or theory to support/defend the assessment decisions you made during the planning stage of your lesson. 

  • My objective was; The student will listen attentively to the book and be able to respond appropriately to comprehension questions. Throughout my lesson I will be modeling the questioning comprehension strategy and asking my students questions in order to encourage them to use this strategy in their reading. I believe this will engage students and give them more reason to listen attentively as I read. I did this as an informal assessment to see if student would be able to ask questions relevant to the literature to deepen their comprehension of the material to better equip them for retelling the information at the end. The academic literature, Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies provides some support to defend my reasoning through the following statements; “Asking probing and hint questions facilitate elaboration and sequencing questions which helps scaffold learning” (McNamara, D. S. 2007, pg. 281). “We believe questioning is a consequence of internal motivation for reading, as well as cognitive competence in forming questions” (McNamara, D. S. 2007, pg. 262)
  • For formal assessment, I will have my students list elements of the book they comprehended through comparing and contrasting the classroom in the book to their classroom. This will be my assessment; For whole class, I will have them draw a picture of one way their class is the same as the one in the book, and one way that they are different. This would also work for assessing individual students. I would be assessing the students ability to compare and contrast elements in the story to their classroom, which was the main focus of my lesson. in addition to assessing my students recall of similarities in the classroom and the differences.

Reference: 

McNamara, D. S. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Teacher Feedback

5a. You may want to say, “I informally assessed my students throughout the learning segment in…this assessment provides evidence of student mastery by…”

5b. what about the adaptations? If I remember, you may not have any students. In the future, just make it up, so you get practice responding to everything.

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463;Chapters 11 & 12

-Chapter 11-

How to determine a students reading level:

  • Have individual students read passages at different reading levels.
  • Passages such as:
  • The developmental reading Assessment
  • Informal Reading Inventories–Basic Reading Inventory or Quantitative Reading Inventory
  • Graded Passages

What are good literacy behaviors:

  • Book handling- turning pages, mouthing or chewing books
  • Looking and recognizing – paying attention to pictures, pointing, laughing
  • Picture and story comprehension – imitating actions or talking about the story
  • Story reading – pretending to read or following the words with their fingers
  • http://www.state.me.us/msl/libs/pr/posters/lit/earlyLit-newsletter.pdf
  • Blend and sort words
  • Track print
  • Word Identification
  • Comprehension
  • Writing

How do you document student progress:

  • Checklists
  • Anecdotal Notes

Assessing students in comprehension:

  • Monitor and assess your students’ development of comprehension behaviors as you interact with them during comprehension lessons and in your independent reading conferences.
  • Take anecdotal notes of students who may have trouble comprehending and observe these students more frequently.
  • Ask them comprehension questions after they have read a passage.

Assessing Writing:

  • Observe writing as you move around the classroom, record your findings.
  • During the first weeks of school, have students do a focused writing sample Give students a prompt to which they can relate. Analyze the samples and document progress over the school year. In the course of a year, have the student write about the topic they picked at the beginning of the year and use this as evidence of progress.
  • Use Checklists.

Assessing Interests:

  • Ask students to bring their 3 favorite books to school. Have students share what they like about the books or the content in them.
  • Allow students to go to the library if they don’t have their favorite book at home.
  • Anecdotal notes throughout the school year.
  • Document students progress, consider doing a reading attitude assessments such as the “Reading and Me”. This can be done beginning, middle and end of the year.

Word identification strategies:

  • Observe students, reading and writing.
  • Do weekly independent reading conferences with children, ask them to read aloud a short part of what they have chosen to share with you, listen to their fluency, and other cues to figure out unknown words.
  • Take Anecdotal notes on observations of students reading out loud, strengths and weaknesses.
  • Look through students writing notebooks for patterns in spelling errors
  • Examine a writing sample to gain information about phonics knowledge, record all words misspelled and how the word was spelled.

-Chapter 12-

How can you differentiate:

  • Have multicultural books throughout your classroom.
  • Have a variety of materials to read.
  • During weekly independent reading conferences, spread struggling readers conferences throughout the day and spend an extra minute or two with them steering them in the right direction of materials at their optional reading level.
  • During Independent reading/writing: letting students choose what they want to read/write.
  • Engage students in rereading through choral reading, echo reading, and reading along with recorded books.
  • Having word walls visible.

Interventions for struggling readers:

  • Teach essential skills and strategies.
    Effective reading teachers teach skills, strategies, and concepts.
  • Provide differentiated instruction based on assessment results and adapt instruction to meet students’ needs.
    Effective teachers recognize that one size doesn’t fit all and are ready to adapt instruction—both content and methods.
  • Provide explicit and systematic instruction with lots of practice—with and without teacher support and feedback, including cumulative practice over time.
    Students should not have to infer what they are supposed to learn.
  • Provide opportunities to apply skills and strategies in reading and writing meaningful text with teacher support.
    Students need to be taught what to do when they get to a “hard word.”
  • Don’t just “cover” critical content; be sure students learn it—monitor student progress regularly and reteach as necessary.
    Effective teachers adjust their teaching accordingly to try to accelerate student progress.
  • http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/tieredinstruction/tier1/effectiveteaching

Areas for struggling readers:

  • Comprehension
  • Oral Reading/Fluency
  • Thinking Strategies

Targeted Tier 2 instruction:

  • For children who are not making adequate progress in spite of focused and differentiated classroom instruction.
  • Instruction is often delivered in small groups or tutoring formats and is targeted to specific instructional needs.
  • Use of the 7 thinking strategies: http://theliteracyconnection.weebly.com/7-thinking-strategies.html
  • Comprehension Scale
  • Oral Reading Fluency Scale

-PRACTICAL APPLICATION-

  • Having multicultural books throughout my classroom as a way to differentiate cultures/backgrounds.

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463; Chapter 10

Main idea trees:

Cut out a brown tree trunk with the main idea of the reading selection. Also cut out three or four cloud shapes from green paper, label each cutout with a different supporting detail, and then glue the shapes to the tree.:

Time lines:

  • a graphic representation of the passage of time as a line.
  • Image result for timelinesImage result for Kid Timelines

 

Compare/contrast bubbles:

  • Comparing and contrasting is a thinking strategy that we use to make sense of what we read. This graphic organizer is very versatile and can be used to teach students to compare and contrast two things, settings, characters, themes, versions of the same tale, mysteries, poems, and other traits.
  • The Venn diagram used for this looks like this picture below. using each side to describe differences and the middle to share similarities.
  • Venn Diagram - Free Printable Compare and Contrast Worksheet for Kids:
    • Image result for compare and contrast bubbles
    • Image result for compare and contrast bubbles

Think-writes for different skills and strategies

  • Think-writes are short, quick bits of writing that help your students focus and clarify their thinking.
  • often completed in two minutes and never take more than five minutes.
  • Written for the writer to clarify thinking.

Practical Application

  • I will use venn diagrams in my classroom to compare and contrast different elements.

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463; Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Vocabulary:

Writer’s workshop:

  • The process of which children choosing their own topics and then writing, revising, editing and publishing.
  • In this workshop, you aim to create and atmosphere in which real writers write and help children see themselves as “real” authors.

Mini-lessons:

  • A mini lesson is a short lesson with a narrow focus that provides instruction in a skill or concept that students will then relate to a larger lesson that will follow. A mini lesson typically precedes reading workshop or writing workshop, but it can serve as an introduction to a social studies, science, or math lesson.

Time for writer’s workshop:

  • Starting off with 6 or 7  minutes, so they don’t get discouraged.
  • This builds a foundation for them to eventually write for 15 to 20 minutes.

Goals of writer’s workshop:

  • Have children get into the habit of writing every day and coming up with their own topics, based on what they want to tell.
  • We want them to learn to use the supports for spelling words displayed in the classroom and how to stretch out big words they need to be able to write what they really want to tell.
  • Want students to realize that they can take several days to write a piece if they have a lot to tell and that in order to add on, they need to read what they have already written.
  • Not starting the process out to quickly, giving the children time to grow and learn along the way.
  • Children looking forward to the writing time and you wanting them to see writing as a way of telling about themselves and things that are most important to them.
  • Developing skills related to writing.

Tips for success:

  • Don’t begin editing until children are writing willingly and fluently.
  • Observe children’s writings to decide what mechanics and conventions they can do automatically.
  • Begin your checklist with one item-start out small.
  • do mini lessons along the way.
  • Give your students grace, they are just beginning to learn how to write.

Editor’s checklist:

  • Do all my sentences make sense?
  • Do all my sentences have ending punctuation?
  • Do all my sentences start with capital letters?
  • Are the words I need to check for spelling circled?
  • Do names and places start with capital letters?
  • Do all my sentences stay on topic?

Peer-editing:

  • Do when students have had a lot of experience editing the teacher’s piece each day, they can learn how to edit in partners.
  • Model for students how to edit.
  • Go along side the children before paring them up in partners.

Author’s chair:

  • A place for students to share their work with their peers.
  • Generally one fifth of the students share each day.
  • The author can ask anyone if they have any questions or if they could change anything to better their work, it is up to them.

Writing conference:

  • A time when children sign up to meet with the teacher to “conference” about their work. This is done AFTER the students has edited their piece with a friend.
  • Make sure the children understands the edits that you encourage and why they should make them.

Struggling writers and how to give them support:

  • Remind students it is not about “quantity, but quality!”.
  • Help avid writers to become independent and gather the struggling writers together and allow them to share what they are working on and sit down with each individual and help them.
  • Have the children tell you what they want to write, and you can be their scribe.and later type the sentences.These sentences can then be constructed into a story or book that the child can publish.

Replacing revising strategy:

  • This helps make writing better by making it more elaborate and complete, the replacing strategy makes writing better by improving the quality of what is already there.
  • Replace overused, boring or inexact words with suggestions from your students. Have them find which words they think could be replaced, before you tell them.

Reordering and removing revising strategies:

  • Shouldn’t be taught until students can revise by adding and replacing.
  • Students need to understand a firm sense of sequence and logical order, which many children do not develop until third grade.

Prompt-based lessons for opinion pieces:

  • “Do any of you have a pet?”
  • “Pretend you would like to have  a certain unusual pet. Write a note asking whoever takes care of you if you have have that pet.”
  •  Allow room for creativity. Students all need to think of an unusual pet, then have them write for 10 minutes.
  • Allow students to write several rough drafts.

Revising opinion pieces:

  • Guidelines:
  • 1. Introduce the topic clearly and state your opinion about it.
  • 2. Give good reasons supported by facts and details.
  • 3. Use words like because, for example, specifically, therefore, and consequently to connect your opinion with reasons.
  • 4. Provide a concluding sentence or paragraph.

Focused writing lessons for informative/explanatory texts:

  • Teach or review background knowledge needed to understand the prompt.
  • Present the prompt and answer students’ questions about it.
  • For the first few lessons, provide students with a good example of an informational piece.
  • Have students individually plan their writing by having them talk to a partner about what they plan to include or write down the 3 things they think are the most important.
  • Have students independently write to the prompt, skipping every other line.

HELPFUL WEBSITE: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/writing-workshop-helping-writers-314.html?tab=4#tabs       –>Elements on Website below

  • Alphabet Organizers: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-interactives/alphabet-organizer-30035.html
  • Engage students and build phonemic awareness by using Alphabet Organizer in the classroom. Students create an alphabet book or alphabet chart with words for each letter of the alphabet. Or choose just one word per letter and upload an image to help early readers make a visual connection between the word and the beginning letter.

    Alphabet Organizer features our work saver so that students can save a draft of their unfinished work or share their final work via e-mail.

  • Construct a Word:http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-interactives/construct-word-30003.html
  • Construct-a-Word provides a simple, engaging way for students to generate dozens of different words by first choosing an ending (for example -an, -ed, -at, -op) and then adding a beginning letter or blend. When a correct word is created, the word is stored in a Word Bank where students can read and review their words. For each ending, Construct-a-Word prompts students to create between 6 and 14 different possible words, adding an element of fun and discovery. It uses animation and sound to guide students through the steps of creating words, and employs prompts that are clear and easy to master. This interactive tool could be used individually or in small groups, either in one session or across multiple lessons.

HELPFUL WEBSITES

Classroom application:

  • I really like the idea of an authors chair. I think this is a great way for students to share their best work with their peers. I hope to utalize this in my future classroom. 

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463; Chapter 8

Informational text:

  • The CCSS defines “informational text” as a broad category of nonfiction resources, including: biographies; autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts (including how-to books and procedural books); and literary nonfiction.
  • They often contain special features such as maps, photos, charts, graghs, headings, bold words and others with require special reading strategies.

What we do when we read an Informational Text: 

  • Require comprehension strategies
  • Call up and connnect relevent prior knowledge
  • Predict, question, and wonder about what will be learned
  • Visiualize and imagin
  • Monitor and use fix-up strategies
  • Summarize the most important ideas
  • Draw conclusions and make inferences
  • Evaluate and make judgements

Close reading:

  • Is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text’s form, craft, meanings, etc. It is a key requirement of the Common Core State Standards and directs the reader’s attention to the text itself.
  • The “close reading” standard states that students are expected to be able to explain what the text says explicitly and to draw inferences from the text.

Guess yes or no

  • Lesson Framework focuses your students’ attention on important details informational texts by having them predict, before they read, which statements are true and which are false, some of the statements require them to make logical inferences.
  • An example of this carried out would be: Teacher reads an article/or/book she will use for her class. She constructs 10 statements, some of which are true and some are false. She writes the false statements so they can be turned into true statements by changing a word or two. She includes some statements that require students to make logical inferences to decide whether they are true or false. She also includes key vocabulary words students need to be able to pronounce and understand to read the text fluently.

Gradual release of responsibility model

  • Is a particular style of teaching which is a structured method of pedagogy framed around a process devolving responsibility within the learning process from the teacher to the eventual independence of the learner.
  • Helpful Link: https://www.mheonline.com/_treasures/pdf/douglas_fisher.pdf

Find it or figure it out

  • Is a lesson Framework you can use to teach your students how to use the information in the text and their prior knowledge to figure things out.
  • An example of this would be; a Teacher reading the text and constructing questions for each two page spread. He makes sure the answers to the “find it” questions are quite literal and can be found “right there” in a sentence or two. He constricts the “Figure it out” questions so that they require his students to make logical inferences. The answers are not right there but there are clues that let you figure our what the answers are.

Different text structures found in informational text:

Main idea trees:

Cut out a brown tree trunk with the main idea of the reading selection. Also cut out three or four cloud shapes from green paper, label each cutout with a different supporting detail, and then glue the shapes to the tree.:

Time lines:

  • a graphic representation of the passage of time as a line.
  • Image result for timelinesImage result for Kid Timelines

 

Compare/contrast bubbles:

  • Image result for compare and contrast bubbles
  • Image result for compare and contrast bubbles

Preview-predict-confirm:

  • Lesson framework that teaches students to use the visuals in  an information text to build vocabulary and to predict about what they will read.
  • Begins with students siting in groups talking about 10 to 15 visuals for a text they will read. Students have 20 seconds to look at each visual and talk about it, and try to predict words they will read connected to the visual. Next, students have 8 minutes to write as many words as they can that they think will occur. At the end of the 8 minutes students look at their words and choose one word they think all the other groups will also have, one word they think is unique to their group and one word they are most interested in. Next the groups read the text and put a check on each word they listed that actually occurred and add five words they wish they had thought of. To end it, students share their results with one another and reflect through writing a short paragraph using as many of their words as they can to tell what they learned.
  • Helpful Resource: https://pals.virginia.edu/pdfs/activities/comprehension/preview_predict_confirm.pdf

Scavenger hunts for text features

Strategies that Promote Comprehension

  • Found on: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/strategies-promote-comprehension
    • Before Reading

      Before reading, the teacher may:

      • Motivate students through activities that may increase their interest (book talks, dramatic readings, or displays of art related to the text), making the text relevant to students in some way.
      • Activate students’ background knowledge important to the content of the text by discussing what students will read and what they already know about its topic and about the text organization.

      Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

      • Establish a purpose for reading.
      • Identify and discuss difficult words, phrases, and concepts in the text.
      • Preview the text (by surveying the title, illustrations, and unusual text structures) to make predictions about its content.
      • Think, talk, and write about the topic of the text.

      During Reading

      During reading, the teacher may:

      • Remind students to use comprehension strategies as they read and to monitor their understanding.
      • Ask questions that keep students on track and focus their attention on main ideas and important points in the text.
      • Focus attention on parts in a text that require students to make inferences.
      • Call on students to summarize key sections or events.
      • Encourage students to return to any predictions they have made before reading to see if they are confirmed by the text.

      Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

      • Determine and summarize important ideas and supportive details.
      • Make connections between and among important ideas in the text.
      • Integrate new ideas with existing background knowledge.
      • Ask themselves questions about the text.
      • Sequence events and ideas in the text.
      • Offer interpretations of and responses to the text.
      • Check understanding by paraphrasing or restating important and/or difficult sentences and paragraphs.
      • Visualize characters, settings, or events in a text.

      After Reading

      After reading, the teacher may:

      • Guide discussion of the reading.
      • Ask students to recall and tell in their own words important parts of the text.
      • Offer students opportunities to respond to the reading in various ways, including through writing, dramatic play, music, readers’ theatre, videos, debate, or pantomime.

      Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

      • Evaluate and discuss the ideas encountered in the text.
      • Apply and extend these ideas to other texts and real life situations.
      • Summarize what was read by retelling the main ideas.
      • Discuss ideas for further reading.

        Activities and procedures for use with narrative texts

      • Story maps
      • Retelling
      • Story Frames
      • Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (DRTA)2

    Activities and procedures for use with expository text

    • K-W-L3
    • Questioning the author
    • Reciprocal Teaching
    • Transitional Instruction Strategy
    • The I chart procedure

Seven Strategies to Teach Students Text Comprehension

  • Found on: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/seven-strategies-teach-students-text-comprehension
    • 1. Monitoring comprehension

      Comprehension monitoring instruction teaches students to:

      • Be aware of what they do understand
      • Identify what they do not understand
      • Use appropriate strategies to resolve problems in comprehension

      2. Metacognition

      Students may use several comprehension monitoring strategies:

      • Identify where the difficulty occurs”I don’t understand the second paragraph on page 76.”
      • Identify what the difficulty is”I don’t get what the author means when she says, ‘Arriving in America was a milestone in my grandmother’s life.'”
      • Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words”Oh, so the author means that coming to America was a very important event in her grandmother’s life.”
      • Look back through the text”The author talked about Mr. McBride in Chapter 2, but I don’t remember much about him. Maybe if I reread that chapter, I can figure out why he’s acting this way now.”
      • Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the difficulty”The text says, ‘The groundwater may form a stream or pond or create a wetland. People can also bring groundwater to the surface.’ Hmm, I don’t understand how people can do that… Oh, the next section is called ‘Wells.’ I’ll read this section to see if it tells how they do it.”

      3. Graphic and semantic organizers

      Graphic organizers can:

      • Help students focus on text structure “differences between fiction and nonfiction” as they read
      • Provide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a text
      • Help students write well-organized summaries of a text

      Here are some examples of graphic organizers:

      4. Answering questions

      Questions can be effective because they:

      • Give students a purpose for reading
      • Focus students’ attention on what they are to learn
      • Help students to think actively as they read
      • Encourage students to monitor their comprehension
      • Help students to review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know

    There are four different types of questions:

    • “Right There”Questions found right in the text that ask students to find the one right answer located in one place as a word or a sentence in the passage.Example: Who is Frog’s friend? Answer: Toad
    • “Think and Search”Questions based on the recall of facts that can be found directly in the text. Answers are typically found in more than one place, thus requiring students to “think” and “search” through the passage to find the answer.Example: Why was Frog sad? Answer: His friend was leaving.
    • “Author and You”Questions require students to use what they already know, with what they have learned from reading the text. Student’s must understand the text and relate it to their prior knowledge before answering the question.Example: How do think Frog felt when he found Toad? Answer: I think that Frog felt happy because he had not seen Toad in a long time. I feel happy when I get to see my friend who lives far away.
    • “On Your Own”Questions are answered based on a students prior knowledge and experiences. Reading the text may not be helpful to them when answering this type of question.Example: How would you feel if your best friend moved away? Answer: I would feel very sad if my best friend moved away because I would miss her.

    5. Generating questions

    By generating questions, students become aware of whether they can answer the questions and if they understand what they are reading. Students learn to ask themselves questions that require them to combine information from different segments of text. For example, students can be taught to ask main idea questions that relate to important information in a text.

    6. Recognizing story structure

    In story structure instruction, students learn to identify the categories of content (characters, setting, events, problem, resolution). Often, students learn to recognize story structure through the use of story maps. Instruction in story structure improves students’ comprehension.

    7. Summarizing

    Summarizing requires students to determine what is important in what they are reading and to put it into their own words. Instruction in summarizing helps students:

    • Identify or generate main ideas
    • Connect the main or central ideas
    • Eliminate unnecessary information
    • Remember what they read

    Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit

    • Direct explanationThe teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy.
    • ModelingThe teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by “thinking aloud” while reading the text that the students are using.
    • Guided practiceThe teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy.
    • Application

    Practical Application to the Classroom:

    I really like one of the example listed above and think it would be fun to do in my classroom someday. 

    Guess yes or no

    • Lesson Framework focuses your students’ attention on important details informational texts by having them predict, before they read, which statements are true and which are false, some of the statements require them to make logical inferences.
    • An example of this carried out would be: Teacher reads an article/or/book she will use for her class. She constructs 10 statements, some of which are true and some are false. She writes the false statements so they can be turned into true statements by changing a word or two. She includes some statements that require students to make logical inferences to decide whether they are true or false. She also includes key vocabulary words students need to be able to pronounce and understand to read the text fluently.

     

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463; Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Comprehension/thinking strategies:

  • Calling up and connecting relevant prior knowledge
  • Predicting, questioning, and wondering about what will be learned and what will happen.
  • Visualizing or imagining what the experience would look, feel, sound, taste, and smell like.
  • Monitoring comprehension and using fix-up strategies such as re-reading, pictures, and asking for help when you cannot make sense of what you read.
  • Determining the most important ideas and events and summarizing what you have read,
  • Drawing conclusions and making inferences based on what was read
  • Evaluating and making judgments about what you think: Did you like it? Did you agree? Was is funny? Could it really happen?

Text structures:

  • How the information within a written text is organized. This strategy helps students understand that a text might present a main idea and details; a cause and then its effects; and/or different views of a topic

Genre:

  • A genre is a book category defined by style, content, and form
  • Understanding genre will help you know what to expect from a text based on its genre; it will also help you notice when an author is playing with your expectations

Think-alouds:

  • A way of modeling the thinking that goes inside your head as you read. Show your students you’re making connections by starting sentences like this: “This reminds me of..” “I remember something like this happened to me when…” ” I read another book where the character…” “This is where the character..” “This is like in our school when…”
  • Demonstrate how your brain predicts, questions and wonders
  • Stop periodically and summarize the most important ideas or events
  • Share the conclusions and inferences you’re making based on the facts you have read
  • demonstrate how you monitor meanings and use fix-up strategies
  • Share images, pictures, and visualizations your brain creates
  • Share your opinions, judgments, and evaluations.

Comprehending narrative texts:

  • Common Core recognizes that comprehending narratives- stories, plays and poetry– is very different from comprehending informational texts and lists different standards for these two very different kinds of texts.

Story maps:

  • Effective devises to guide students’ thinking when they are reading a story.
    • Story Map
  • Main Characters
  •  Setting (time and place)
  • Problems or Goals
  • Event 1
  • Event 2
  • Event 3
  • Etc.
  • Solution
  • Story Theme or moral

Beach ball as a tool:

  • Write questions on the beach ball on each colored segment of the ball:
  • Who are the main characters?
  • What is the setting?
  • What happened in the beginning?
  • What happened in the middle?
  • How did it end?
  • What was your favorite part?
  • Toss the ball around after reading a story and allow the student to answer one of the questions on the ball. You could have the student answer the question that is closest to their right thumb, or a certain color, etc.

Compare/contrast bubbles:

  • Comparing and contrasting is a thinking strategy that we use to make sense of what we read. This graphic organizer is very versatile and can be used to teach students to compare and contrast two things, settings, characters, themes, versions of the same tale, mysteries, poems, and other traits.
  • The Venn diagram used for this looks like this picture below. using each side to describe differences and the middle to share similarities.
  • Venn Diagram - Free Printable Compare and Contrast Worksheet for Kids:

Other strategies in the book

  • Doing the book! Through: doing a play acting out a story, make a scene (just a single scene instead of a full play.)

Strategies that Promote Comprehension

  • http://www.readingrockets.org/article/strategies-promote-comprehension
  • Before Reading

    Before reading, the teacher may:

    • Motivate students through activities that may increase their interest (book talks, dramatic readings, or displays of art related to the text), making the text relevant to students in some way.
    • Activate students’ background knowledge important to the content of the text by discussing what students will read and what they already know about its topic and about the text organization.

    Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

    • Establish a purpose for reading.
    • Identify and discuss difficult words, phrases, and concepts in the text.
    • Preview the text (by surveying the title, illustrations, and unusual text structures) to make predictions about its content.
    • Think, talk, and write about the topic of the text.

    During Reading

    During reading, the teacher may:

    • Remind students to use comprehension strategies as they read and to monitor their understanding.
    • Ask questions that keep students on track and focus their attention on main ideas and important points in the text.
    • Focus attention on parts in a text that require students to make inferences.
    • Call on students to summarize key sections or events.
    • Encourage students to return to any predictions they have made before reading to see if they are confirmed by the text.

    Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

    • Determine and summarize important ideas and supportive details.
    • Make connections between and among important ideas in the text.
    • Integrate new ideas with existing background knowledge.
    • Ask themselves questions about the text.
    • Sequence events and ideas in the text.
    • Offer interpretations of and responses to the text.
    • Check understanding by paraphrasing or restating important and/or difficult sentences and paragraphs.
    • Visualize characters, settings, or events in a text.

    After Reading

    After reading, the teacher may:

    • Guide discussion of the reading.
    • Ask students to recall and tell in their own words important parts of the text.
    • Offer students opportunities to respond to the reading in various ways, including through writing, dramatic play, music, readers’ theatre, videos, debate, or pantomime.

    Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

    • Evaluate and discuss the ideas encountered in the text.
    • Apply and extend these ideas to other texts and real life situations.
    • Summarize what was read by retelling the main ideas.
    • Discuss ideas for further reading.

      Activities and procedures for use with narrative texts

    • Story maps
    • Retelling
    • Story Frames
    • Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (DRTA)2

Activities and procedures for use with expository text

  • K-W-L3
  • Questioning the author
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Transitional Instruction Strategy
  • The I chart procedure

Make Reading Count

  • http://www.readingrockets.org/webcasts/2002
  • What are some good ways the teacher can access a child’s level of comprehension?

    A very simple way, by asking the child to tell them, to tell her or him, “What was that all about?” And when you get to a part that the teacher’s not sure whether the child understood it or not, by saying, “Can you tell me more about when Charlie had a headache?” And so, what you do is ask the child to tell you what they understood from the text, and you can certainly learn a great deal about whether they are comprehending it or not. It’s my favorite way. Just ask them. don’t make it complicated.

  • Well, beyond encouraging, how do you teach children to make these connections?

    Well, I think I wouldn’t underestimate encouraging. I would say it by saying you need to encourage them by asking them to do it time, and time, and time again. And I think what’s particularly important is that kids and the teacher work through texts with the kids. They read a part of it, and then they talk about it. And what they talk about ought to be aspects of the text that connected up, so that they bring it together. “So how does that connect with what we read before?” “Does that connect with something we read in the earlier chapter?” I mean, that’s an important idea too, especially when you’re in to content area books. So, you just keep asking them to do it.

  • Why is vocabulary instruction so important, and what does it have to do with comprehension?

    Well, comprehension is made up of words, and words are the building blocks of language. And so, obviously, kids need to know the meanings of words. And here, I do want to distinguish between teaching kids to read words they already know from oral language, that talk about the code, which of course is critical, and the aspect that I’ve paid attention to – not that I haven’t paid attention to teaching kids the phonics – but the aspect that I paid particular attention to more recently is learning words whose meanings they don’t know from oral language. And this is quite critical, because one does not learn a lot of the more literary words, or the more literate words, from oral language, even among the conversations of college graduates. Oral language is limited in the breadth with which words are used.

Other helpful website

Practical Application

  • Comprehension strategies I’ve seen in a Kindergarten classroom/hope to implement into my classroom:
    • Picture walk and prediction. The teacher holds the book for all students to see, she pages through the book and allows the children to look through the book. After they have looked through the book, she asks children what they think will happen in the book, or what the story is going to be about. Basing their predictions on what they have seen in the pictures. Then read the book. Discuss their predictions and if what they thought was going to happen actually happened. Allow students to discuss what surprised them or what actually happened. This can lead to great discussions.
    • Drawing a picture to share what occurred in the story. After reading a story, give the children a specific time limit (i.e. 15 minutes) to share elements of what happened in the story through a picture. The can label elements in their picture if they desire. Their drawing can be about how they felt while reading, a character in the story, their favorite scene, or something that surprised them (one or more of those). If time allows, go around and ask each student to share their picture with you and why they chose what they did. This will allow them to verbally communicate the parts of the story that stood out to them. This may help the children to create mental images.
    • Teacher asking questions and modeling asking themselves questions as they read. After reading through a story, the teacher could ask comprehension questions that refer to the story (i.e. “What do you think Esther will do now? How do you think Esther’s father will react? What would you do if you were Esther?). The teacher can model asking questions to herself through, when she is reading, pausing and sharing questions that she has throughout the story. She can encourage students to do the same when they are reading. By showing students how to search for meaning, we introduce strategies of understanding that can be reinforced in shared, guided, and independent reading.

 

 

 

 

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463; Chapter 6/Reading Rockets

Chapter 6

Teach Vocabulary with “real things”

  • Bring real items into the classroom and anchor words to them. i.e. balls (tennis, basketball, baseball, football, golf, volly ball, beach ball.)
  • Send student looking for real things in their home environments. Ask questions that send students looking or and identifying similar objects in their home to ones shown in class or talked about.
  • I would use these Ideas for practical application to my classroom! 🙂

Reading Rockets Finds

Semantic Gradients

  • Semantic gradients are a way to broaden and deepen students’ understanding of related words. Students consider a continuum of words by order of degree. Semantic gradients often begin with antonyms, or opposites, at each end of the continuum. This strategy helps students distinguish between shades of meaning. By enhancing their vocabulary, students can be more precise and imaginative in their writing.
  • http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/semantic_gradients

Concept Sort

  • A concept sort is a vocabulary and comprehension strategy used to familiarize students with the vocabulary of a new topic or book. Teachers provide students with a list of terms or concepts from reading material. Students place words into different categories based on each word’s meaning. Categories can be defined by the teacher or by the students. When used before reading, concept sorts provide an opportunity for a teacher to see what his or her students already know about the given content. When used after reading, teachers can assess their students’ understanding of the concepts presented.
  • http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/concept_sort

List-Group-Label

  • List-group-label is a form of semantic mapping. The strategy encourages students to improve their vocabulary and categorization skills and learn to organize concepts. Categorizing listed words, through grouping and labeling, helps students organize new concepts in relation to previously learned concepts.

Academic language

  • Academic language is the language of school and it is used in textbooks, essays, assignments, class presentations, and assessments. Academic language is used at all grade levels, although its frequency increases as students get older.

Building Your Child’s Vocabulary

Choosing what words to teach:

What is the ‘word gap’

  • A study conducted more than 30 years ago first came up with findings that showed there was a “word gap” between children from low-income homes and children from economically advantaged ones.
  • http://time.com/4069992/word-gap-education/

Vocabulary Development

  • Word analysis to expand vocabulary. When students engage in “word analysis” or “word study,” they break words down into their smallest units of meaning — morphemes. Discover effective strategies for classroom word study, including the use of online tools, captioning, and embedded supports to differentiate instruction.
  • http://www.readingrockets.org/article/word-analysis-expand-vocabulary-development
  • Vocabulary Development during Read Alouds. Reading aloud is a common practice in primary classrooms and is viewed as an important vehicle for vocabulary development. Read-alouds are complex instructional interactions in which teachers choose texts, identify words for instruction, and select the appropriate strategies to facilitate word learning. This study explored the complexities by examining the read-aloud practices of four primary teachers through observations and interviews.
  • http://www.readingrockets.org/article/vocabulary-development-during-read-alouds-primary-practices

 

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 364; edTPA

Summary of EdTPA planning task 1: Planning for Instruction and Assessment

  • EdTPA Elementary Literacy, is a nationally available performance-based assessment, and its purpose is to measure novice teachers’ readiness to teach elementary literacy. For this assessment, you will first plan 3–5 consecutive literacy lessons (or, if teaching within a large time block, 3–5 hours of connected instruction) referred to as a learning segment.
  • In planning task 1, you document your intended teaching. This will be done through artifacts and commentaries. These items represent authentic work done by you and your students such as; lesson plans, rationale as to why you taught what you did, and copies of instructional materials. The three tasks and the evidence you provide for each are framed by your understandings of your students and their learning. As you develop, document, and teach your lessons, you will reflect upon the cyclical relationship among planning, instruction, and assessment, with a focus on your students’ learning needs.
  • In planning task one; it is all about the planning and foundation of your lesson. A brief outline of what you will have to do in this task is as follows. You begin with selecting one class as a focus for assessment, provide relevant context information, select a learning segment to plan, teach, and analyze student learning, determine a central focus, create lesson plans for each learning segment, ensure that there is academic language present throughout your lessons that is supportive of the learning task, respond to commentary prompts before teaching learning segment, and lastly, submit copies of all written assessments and/or directions from the learning segment.
  • The Evaluation Criteria: The evidence (i.e., artifacts and commentaries) you submit will be judged on five components of teaching practice:
    1. Planning
    2. Instruction
    3. Assessment
    4. Analyzing Teaching
    5. Academic Language

Questions I have about the EdTPA

  1. What is the timeline of this in student teaching? Do they expect you to have everything in within a number of weeks? Or is it all due at the end of the semester?
  2. Is there any outlines or examples we can follow for this, or do we just figure it out along the way?
  3. I recall hearing past student teachers talking about how hard the videotaping process was. Will we have to do what we do now for classes, upload to youtube, or is it different? Can you edit clips together?
  4. It said we need 3 to 5 lesson plans. What determines how many to create?
  5. For task one is says we have to submit: Part A: Context for Learning Information ¤ Part B: Lesson Plans for Learning Segment ¤ Part C: Instructional Materials ¤ Part D: Assessments ¤ Part E: Planning Commentary. Is there a place that has detailed expectations for each one of these areas?

Take Aways

1. The edTPA Elementary Literacy assessment is composed of three tasks                                                                  -Planning for Instruction and Assessment, –Instructing and Engaging Students in Learning, –Assessing Student Learning

2.The three edTPA tasks represent a cycle of effective teaching (i.e., teaching that is focused on student learning).

Planning Task 1 documents your intended teaching

Instruction Task 2 documents your enacted teaching

Assessment Task 3 documents the impact of your teaching on student learning.

  1. An essential part of edTPA is the evidence you will submit of how you planned, taught, and assessed your lessons to deepen student learning in literacy. This evidence includes both artifacts and commentaries.
  2. Evaluation Criteria, The evidence (i.e., artifacts and commentaries) you submit will be judged on five components of teaching practice: Planning, Instruction, Assessment, Analyzing Teaching, and Academic Language. Those grading will look for all of these elements when they use the: Evaluation Rubrics Planning Rubrics, You are assessed on 5 rubrics for task one.

1: Planning for Literacy Learning Rubric

2: Planning to Support Varied Student Learning Needs Rubric

3: Using Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching and Learning Rubric

4: Identifying and Supporting Language Demands Rubric

5: Planning Assessments to Monitor and Support Student Learning

Abigail Scherer; EngEd 463; Chapter 5

Strategies good readers use: 

  • Recognize unfamiliar words, and look at all the letters in order
  • Search mental word bank for similar letter patterns and the sounds associated with them
  • Produce a pronunciation that matches that of a real word that you know
  • Reread the sentence to cross-check your possible pronunciation with meaning. If meaning confirms pronunciation, continue reading. If not, try again!
  • Look for familiar morphemes, and chunk the word by putting letters together that usually go to together in the words you know.

Guess the covered word activities:

  1. Before class begins, write four or five sentences on the board that begin with your students names. i.e. Kate likes to play softball
  2. Cover the last word in each sentence with a sticky note
  3. begin the activity by reading the first sentence and ask students to guess the covered word. Write 4 guesses on the board next to the sentence.
  4. Uncover all the letters up to the vowel, have the students continue offering guesses
  5. after the student guesses the word, include some sentences in which the covered word begins with the digraphs; sh, ch, th, wh.

Using words you know activities:

  • Show students 3 to 5 words they know and have these words pronounced and spelled.
  • Draw 4 columns, and head each column with one of the words. i.e. bike, car, train, or van
  • Tell students that words that rhyme usually have the same spelling pattern. underline the spelling patterns. i.e. i-k-e, a-r, a-i-n, a-n, and have students underline them on their papers.
  • Tell students you are going to show them some new words and that they should write each one  under the word with the same spelling pattern. Show them words you have written on index cards. i.e for bike; hike, pike, spike.
  • Explain to your students that thinking of rhyming words can help them spell
  • End this part  of the lesson by helping students verbalize that in English, words that rhyme often have the same spelling pattern and that good readers and spellers do not sound out every letter, but rather try to think of a rhyming words and read or spell the word using the pattern in the rhyming word.

Making words lessons and activities: (Planning Steps)

  1. Choose your secret word, a word that can be made with all the letters. in choosing this word, consider child interests, the curriculum tie-ins you can make, and the letter-sound patterns to which you can draw children’s attention through the sorting at the end.
  2. Make a list of the other words that can be made from these letters
  3. from all the words you could make, pick 12 to 15 words using this criteria:                          -Words you can sort for the pattern you wan to emphasize. -little words and big words to create a multilevel lesson. – words that can be made with the same letters in different places (barn/bran) so children are reminded that ordering letters is crucial when spelling. -A proper name or two to rind children that we use capital letters. – Words that most students have in their listening vocabulary.
  4. Write all the words on index cards, longest to shortest
  5. have 2 letter words together, etc. order them so you can emphasize letter patterns and how changing the positions of the letters or changing/adding just one letter results in a different word.
  6. Chose some letters or patterns to sort for.
  7.  Chose some transfer words-uncommon words you can read or spell based on the rhyming words.
  8. Store the cards in an envelope. Write the words in order on the envelope, the patterns you will sort for and the transfer words.

Decoding big words:

  1. Store cards in an Have students have a mental store of big words that contain the spelling patterns common to big words
  2. Have students chunk big words into pronounceable segments by comparing the parts of new big words they already know
  3. Students are able to recognize and use common prefixes and and suffixes

Nifty-thrifty-fifty:

Points From Video Resource: http://www.readingrockets.org/teaching/reading101

  • The most important thing parents can do for their children is to model reading and to teach them letters.
  • This can be done even as you walk through the grocery store, showing children letters of all the different items in the store and the words they create.
  • It is important to read with their children and to them.

Put Reading First, Phonics Section

  • How long should phonics be taught?
Approximately two years of phonics instruction is sufficient for most students. If phonics
instruction begins early in kindergarten, it should be completed by the end of first grade.
  • Phonics instruction
•helps children learn the relationships between the letters of written
language and the sounds of spoken language.
Phonics instruction is important because
•it leads to an understanding of the alphabetic principle—the systematic and
predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
  • Programs of phonics instruction are effective when they are
systematic
—the plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of
letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence.
explicit
—the programs provide teachers with precise directions for the
teaching of these relationships.
  • Effective phonics programs provide
•ample opportunities for children to apply what they are learning about
letters and sounds to the reading of words, sentences, and stories.
Systematic and explicit phonics instruction
•significantly improves children’s word recognition, spelling, and reading
comprehension.
•is most effective when it begins in kindergarten or first grade

National Panel Report Summary, Phonics Section

Phonics Instructional Approaches

  • Analogy Phonics
—Teaching students
unfamiliar words by analogy to known
words (e.g., recognizing that the rime
segment of an unfamiliar word is identical to
that of a familiar word, and then blending the
known rime with the new word onset, such
as reading
brick by recognizing that
-ick is
contained in the known word
kick, or
reading
stump by analogy to
jump)
  • Analytic Phonics
—Teaching students to
analyze letter-sound relations in previously
learned words to avoid pronouncing sounds
in isolation.
Embedded Phonics
—Teaching students
phonics skills by embedding phonics
instruction in text reading, a more implicit
approach that relies to some extent on
incidental learning.
  • Phonics through Spelling
—Teaching
students to segment words into phonemes
and to select letters for those phonemes
(i.e., teaching students to spell words
phonemically).
  • Synthetic Phonics
—Teaching students
explicitly to convert letters into sounds
(phonemes) and then blend the sounds to
form recognizable words.

Literacy Survival Tips for New Teachers:  Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Guide to Best Practices and Top 5 Phonics Word/Work Lessons by Lori Oczkus

  • Practical Teaching Tip
    If you do not have magnetic letters
    handy, you can cut up large-square
    graph paper and have students write
    individual letters on the squares to
    put together to “make” and then
    “break” up words
  • Practical Teaching Tip
    Students save the words in envelopes
    in their word-study notebooks and
    periodically mix and match the
    categories of words to sort. Type up
    the words on a sheet that is divided
    into boxes, and have students cut
    apart the words.
  • What Strategies Do Good “Word Solvers”Use?
    ■ Discriminate letters in print
    quickly.
    ■ Recognize whole words as units.
    ■ Use word parts.
    ■ Use known words to figure out unknown words.
    ■ Sound out words by individual letters or letter clusters.
    ■ Use base words to analyze parts.
    ■ Analyze words left to right.
    ■ Check attempts by using letter parts and word parts.
    ■ Use context.
    ■ Use references and resources such as dictionaries to look up meanings and pronunciations.
    ■ Substitute words of similar meaning

 

Practical application 

Grade Level: Prekindergarten

Activity One– Name places: Every day when the students come into class, have their name on a piece of paper at their seat. On different days, have different ways of having them write their name, Monday & Friday- they copy the example of their name, writing it on their own. Tuesday and Thursday have them connect the dots to write their name and on Wednesdays have them write in bubble letters to write their name. The goal is, to have the students eventually write their name’s on their projects and such so the teacher isn’t constantly writing names. As well as promoting independence in their writing of their name. This will also promote their understanding of the letters in their name as well as their friend’s names and give them the ability to say for example: “My name is Abigail, I have two a’s in my name! One is a capital A and the other is a lowercase a!”.

Differentiation: High flyers, just give them lines for them to write their name on their paper without any aids. Struggling writers, show them how to hold their writing utensil and maybe put your hand over theirs to help guide them in their writing as well as allowing more opportunities for them to practice.

–I am a Teachers assistant in a 4 K classroom and we do this activity. These students are relatively new to school so it is exciting to see them making connections with the letters and words. This activity would be especially helpful at the beginning of the year.

Activity two– Sticky note game:  On a smart board or white board write out a number of words. Have the letters spaced out a bit and a box for each letter after them i.e. B O X  _ _ _ (but those lines would be boxes). You will create sticky notes that have all the letters on them to create these words. Hide sticky notes around the room (in pretty obvious places). You will instruct your students to go and find the letters on the sticky notes and come back to you at the board and tell you which box their letter belongs. If they can reach, they can place their sticky note letter in themselves. Continue activity until all words have the individual letters o the sticky notes create your words.

Differentiation: High flyers: have a different color of sticky notes for each high flyer to create different words for them. Have a paper for each one of them with the words they will need to create with their letters. But, their words are not just written out in order, their letters on their page are scrambled. i.e. C A T would be listed as A T C  _ _ _ (with the boxes after it). Each student would only have a few words each, depending on their level. Struggling spellers: show them which word their letter is in, ask leading questions that will help them think critically as to where to place their letter.

Source for where I got this idea: http://thisreadingmama.com/post-a-word-a-sight-word-scavenger-hunt/

Activity Three: Words 3 different ways: Have a sheet of paper, divided in to three sections boxed all the ways down (example shown below) . In the first rectangle have the student trace a word, second rectangle, have the student stamp the word with letter stamps and in the last section have the student practice writing the word out.

Differentiation: High flyers: give them longer, words that are slightly more complicated. struggling writers: give them simple words, make their list of words have many words with similar letters, so the stamping doesn’t overwhelm them and they can use the same letters over again. i.e. cat, bat, sat, mat, call, mall, etc.

Three different ways to make words

Source where I got this idea: Teachmama.com