-Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learners-
Academic and Cognitive Diversity-The situation that results when children learn faster than, slower than, or differently from what is expected in school.
Additive Approach-A thematic approach that addresses multicultural issues.
Contribution Approach-A multicultural approach that typically includes culturally specific celebrations and holidays.
Decision-making and Social-action Approach-A multicultural approach that provides students with opportunities to undertake activities and projects related to cultural issues.
Differentiated instruction-Adapting teaching for all learners to meet individual needs.
Inclusion-Incorporating the diverse needs and abilities of all students into classroom instruction.
Response Protocol- designed to help teachers better their understanding of student’s language development and broaden their repertoire for meeting the needs of this special population.
Transformative approach-A multicultural approach that provides students with opportunities to read about cultural concepts and events that are different from their own, make judgments about them, think critically, and generate conclusions.
ELL Developmental Language Level
- Level 1- learners are beginners. they try to grasp the meanings of words and connect them to ideas. They begin to communicate in sentences but may answer questions with only one word.
- Level 2- Learners can understand simple, concrete sentences. They begin to decode words and develop the ability to decode words and develop the ability to read high frequency words. Following a structured framework, the learners can write simple sentences and narratives.
- Level 3- Learners have a good grasp on basic communication skills, although grammar and syntax may be incorrect. The are progressing as readers but need extensive content vocabulary to enhance.
- Level 4- Learners have increased in fluency and can read most class assignments. They still need help with abstract concepts and writing skills.
Four Basic Principles for Teaching ELL students:
- It is important to realize the benefits of bilingualism and the cognitive abilities that students bring to the classroom when they speak a language other than English.
- Teachers need to be sensitive to the language similarities and differences that bilingual students bring to the classroom, and they need to appreciate the challenges that students face when learning a second language.
- It is critical that teachers realize and build on the rich cultural heritage that ELL students bring to the classroom.
- Teachers need to appreciate that ELL students tend to be sensitive to negative emotions regarding self concepts that might not appear evident on the surface.
- The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004(IDEA 2004) is a United States law that mandates equity, accountability and excellence in education for children with disabilities.
Instructional Principles for Academic and Cognitive Diversity
- Students need to be engaged with authentic texts
- Students with diverse abilities need to see reading as purposeful; they need to see reading as “real” in their lives.
- Students who differ in their reading abilities need to experiences with literacy tasks that are highly engaging and that are focused on their interests as learners. (Motivation to read is critical)
- Students who struggle need teachers who can guide them toward success.
- Teachers of students with a variety of abilities need to be focused.
- Effective teachers involve parents.
Public Law 94-142
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, passed in 1975 and since amended;
- Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation
- Free, appropriate public education
- Least restrictive environment
- Parent and student participation and shared decision making
Application to the classroom:
Differentiation instruction to students in regards to their culture, exceptional needs or gifted abilities.
Tie in students cultures when able.
Teach from a multicultural perspective.