Analogy-based instruction-Sometimes referred to as analogic phonics, analogy-based instruction teaches children to use onsets and rimes they already know to help decode unknown words.
Analytic phonics-An approach to phonics teaching that emphasizes the discovery of letter-sound relationships through the analysis of known words.
Cloze sentences-pertaining to or being a procedure used to measure comprehension or text difficulty
Consolidated alphabetic phase- In the consolidated alphabetic phase of decoding, the sequence of letters in a word becomes salient. A person in this phase groups common patterns of letters and sounds as units. This allows her to decode multi-syllable, novel, and nonsense words by analogy. A person in this phase decodes many words by sight.
Consonant blend- Also called consonant clusters) are groups of two or three consonants in words that makes a distinct consonant sound, such as “bl” or “spl.” Consonant digraphs include bl, br, ch, ck, cl, cr, dr, fl, fr, gh, gl, gr, ng, ph, pl, pr, qu, sc, sh, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, st, sw, th, tr, tw, wh, wr.
Cross-checking- Using letter-sound information and meaning to identify words.
Decodable text- Text that is written with a large number of words that have phonetic similarities; there is typically a match between the text and the phonics elements that the teacher has taught.
Dipthong- a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable, in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another (as in coin, loud, and side )
Decoding-convert (a coded message) into intelligible language.
Digraph-a combination of two letters representing one sound, as in ph and ey.
Embedded phonics instruction- Often called holistic, meaning-centered instruction, embedded phonics teaches within the contexts of stories that make sense to the children.
Full alphabetic phase-In the full alphabetic phase of decoding, the major sound-symbol relationships for each letter are used systematically. A person early in this phase is apt to decode many words letter-by-letter. She will likely use initial and final letters as decoding cues. Later in this phase, a person is apt to recognize many words by sight, produce fewer miscues when decoding aloud, and fewer miscues yet that are nonsense words.
High-frequency words- Words that appear often in printed material.
Linguistic instruction- A traditional approach to teaching phonics popular in the 1960’s.
Morpheme and inflected endings- serve as grammatical markers that indicate tense, number, possession, or comparison. Inflectional morphemes in English include the bound morphemes -s (or -es);‘s (or s’); -ed; -en; -er; -est; and -ing.
Onsets- The initial part of a word (a consonant, consonant blend, or digraph) that precedes the vowel.
Partial alphabetic phase-In the partial alphabetic phase of decoding, letter cues are added to context cues in the decoding of print. A person in the partial alphabetic phase will identify the names and major sounds of most consonants. She is increasingly likely to use some of these letter-sound associations as decoding and spelling cues. She is decreasingly likely to use non-alphabetic context cues.
Phonics- a method of teaching people to read by correlating sounds with letters or groups of letters in an alphabetic writing system.
Phonograms- Letter clusters that help form word families or rhyming words.
Pre-alphabetic phase- In the pre-alphabetic phase of decoding, words are not decoded in an alphabetic sense but as icons, using what Ehri and McCormick call “non-alphabetic, visually salient cues.” A person is considered to be in this phase if she identifies few letter names or distinguishes few phonemes in words. Also, a person is considered to be in this phase if she recognizes few written words, each primarily in a limited context.
Rimes- The part of letter pattern in a word that includes the vowel and any consonants that follow; also called a phonogram or word family.
Structural analysis- A word recognition skill that involves identifying words in meaningful units such as prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Structural analysis also includes being able to identify inflected endings, compound words, and contractions.
Syllables- a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word; e.g., there are two syllables inwater and three in inferno.
Synthetic phonics- A building-block approach to phonics intended to foster the understanding of letter-sound relationships and develop phonic knowledge and skill.
Word analysis- For more proficient readers, Word Analysis also refers to knowledge of the meanings and spellings of prefixes, root words, and suffixes. Word Analysis instruction can be very effective in helping beginning readers learn to read with understanding.
Word walls- Words compiled on sheets of shelf paper hung on the wall of a classroom. Word walls are used by teachers to engage students in word study for a variety of instructional purposes.
-Alphabetic Phases- Helpful Link-
Application to the Classroom
- Have word walls and use sight words throughout your classroom.