Assessing fluency- http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED483166.pdf
Automaticity- Is the fast, effortless word recognition that comes with a great deal of reading practice.
Effective fluency instruction- http://www.readingrockets.org/article/what-works-fluency-instruction
Fluency- The ability to read with speed, accuracy, and proper expression. In order to understand what they read, children must be able to read fluently whether they are reading aloud or silently. When reading aloud, fluent readers read in phrases and add intonation appropriately.
Mediated word identification-Both phonics and structural analysis involve mediated word identification. Mediation implies that the reader needs more time to retrieve words from long term-memory. Readers use mediation strategies when they don’t have in place a well-developed schema for a word: The schema is lacking in either semantic of physical features sufficient for rapid retrieval.
Predictable text- Those that have recurring language patterns, include the repetition of words or language elements, and exhibit a close alignment between pictures and text.”
For example, a book like “Green Eggs and Ham” uses lots of “-am” words (“I am Sam, Sam I am”), so that if a child figures out the sound of “-am”, s/he can also predict the way other “-am” words will sound.
Prosody- The rhythm and pattern of sounds of poetry and language
Reading rate- The rate at which a person reads written text (printed or electronic) in a specific unit of time. It is generally calculated by the number of words read per minute.
Types of predictable texts-
- Chain or Circular Story—the story ending leads back to the story beginning.
- Cumulative Story—each time a new event occurs, all previous events are repeated.
- Familiar Sequence—the book is organized around a recognizable theme or concept, such as days of the week, numbers, the alphabet, seasons, opposites, etc.
- Pattern Stories—scenes in the story are repeated with some variation.
- Question and Answer—the same or similar questions are repeated throughout the story.
- Repetition of Phrase—the word order in a phrase or sentence is repeated.
- Rhyme—the book has rhyming words, refrains, or patterns that are repeated.
WPM or WCPM- Words per minute – the rate at which words are produced (as in speaking or typing)
–Strategies to assist with fluency-
Automated reading- A reading approach in which students listen individually to audio recorded stories while reading along with written text.
Choral reading- Is reading aloud in unison with a whole class or group of students. Choral reading helps build students’ fluency, self-confidence, and motivation.
Cross-age reading- A routine for fluency development that pairs upper-grade readers with younger children.
Echo reading- Is a rereading strategy designed to help students develop expressive, fluent reading as well as used for print knowledge. In echo reading, the teacher reads a short segment of text, sometimes a sentence or short paragraph, and the student echo it back.
Paired readings- Is a research-based fluency strategy used with readers who lack fluency. In this strategy, students read aloud to each other. When using partners, more fluent readers can be paired with less fluent readers, or children who read at the same level can be paired to reread a story they have already read.
Readers’ theater- Is readers reading a script adapted from literature, and the audience picturing the action from hearing the script being read aloud. It requires no sets, costumes, props, or memorized lines.
Repeated readings- Is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level.
Support reading strategy- A strategy designed to develop the ability to read fluently by combining several instructional elements.
What parents can do at home to help their student become a fluent reader-
- Read more
- Reread Familiar Texts
- Use Predictable Books
- Model fluent reading: Read to your child to show what fluent reading sounds like. Choose stories and books that will interest her. Read naturally, with the right emotion or tone to match the words you’re reading. If you’re busy, you can also have your child listen to audio books as she follows along with the matching book.
- Try guided practice: Choose a short piece from a story or a poem, and read it aloud while your child listens and follows along. Then read just the first line of the piece and have your child read it back to you. Read the second line of the piece and have your child read it back to you. Continue until you have completed the piece. Repeat several times.
- Read together: Choose a book or passage that is not too long and read it while your child listens and follows along. Then read the same book or passage several times together.
- Try repeated readings: Choose a short book or passage of a book that is just a little above your child’s reading level. Have your child read it through. If your child doesn’t read a word correctly, or hesitates for longer than five seconds, read the word out loud and have your child repeat it. She should then continue reading. After you complete the entire reading, have her read it again three or four times over.
- Perform some readings: Passages that are meant to be read at a performance, like poetry, scripts, speeches and jokes are all great ways to develop reading out loud. After she practices all week, your child can “perform” for the family.
- Time and graph some reading practice: Choose a short piece at your child’s reading level and make a copy for yourself. Have your child read it out loud for one minute. Together, count up the number of correct words she read in that minute. Have your child record the result with a bar graph. Your child should read the same passage three or four more times. Continue to graph each result. Soon she will see that her speed and accuracy are improving.
- Praise meaningfully: Use praise to develop your child’s self-awareness. Use comments like “I love how you made your voice strong and loud so I knew what you said was important” or “You got all the words right. But it was hard for me to follow some of what you were saying because you read so fast.”
-Fluency development lesson (FDL)-
The FDL employs short reading passages (poems, story segments, or other texts) that students read and reread over a short period of time. The format for the lesson is:
- Students read a familiar passage from the previous lesson to the teacher or a fellow student for accuracy and fluency.
- The teacher introduces a new short text and reads it to the students two or three times while the students follow along. Text can be a poem, segment from a basal passage, or literature book, etc.
- The teacher and students discuss the nature and content of the passage.
- Teacher and students read the passage chorally several times. Antiphonal reading and other variations are used to create variety and maintain engagement.
- The teacher organizes student pairs. Each student practices the passage three times while his or her partner listens and provides support and encouragement.
- Individuals and groups of students perform their reading for the class or other audience.
- The students and their teacher choose 3 or 4 words from the text to add to the word bank and/or word wall.
- Students engage in word study activities (e.g. word sorts with word bank words, word walls, flash card practice, defining words, word games, etc.)
- The students take a copy of the passage home to practice with parents and other family members.
- Students return to school and read the passage to the teacher or a partner who checks for fluency and accuracy.
-Fluency-orientated reading instruction (FORI)-
-Oral recitation lesson (ORL)-
-Practical Application in the Classroom-
- Do Echo reading activity’s with students.
- Have student write up a journal entry and take turns reading fluently to the class to improve their automaticity in reading.