-Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Development-
Analogy- A comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
Aptitude hypothesis- A belief that vocabulary and comprehension reflect general intellectual ability.
Categorization- Critical manipulation of words in relation to other words through the labeling of ideas, events, or objects.
Concept circles- A Vocabulary activity in which students identify conceptual relationships among words and phrases that are partitioned withing a circle.
Instrumental hypothesis-Belief in a causal chain between vocabulary knowledge and comprehension; that is, if comprehension depends in part ton the knowledge of word meanings, vocabulary instruction should influence comprehension.
Knowledge hypothesis- The suggestion that vocabulary and comprehension reflect general knowledge rather than intellectual ability.
Multiple-meaning words- Words for which readers must rely on context in order to determine meaning.
Paired-word sentence generation- Teaching strategy that asks students to take two related words and create one sentence that correctly demonstrates and understanding of the words and their relationship to one another.
Predictogram-A strategy that develops students’ meaning vocabulary through the use of story elements.
Self-selection strategy- A strategy that helps students monitor their own vocabulary growth by selecting unknown vocabulary words.
Semantic mapping- A strategy that shoes readers and writers how to organize important information.
Think sheets- List of questions used to elicit responses about texts for discussion purposes.
Vocabulary- A panoply of words we use, recognize and respond to in meaningful acts of communication.
Word knowledge rating- A strategy that helps students develop an awareness of how well they know vocabulary words by rating themselves on their knowledge of words based on a continuum.
Word sorts- Vocabulary development through categorization activities with groups of words.
-Components of vocabulary-
-Principles to Guide Vocabulary Instruction-
Principle 1: Select words in actual reading materials
- Choose words which are essential to understanding the entire text.
- Choose words without clues.
- Choose words which are to be encountered even in other texts.
- Key words/ content specific words or those that appear in materials for basic reading
- Useful words/ general academic vocabulary or those which almost always appear in texts
- Interesting words or those that tickle the imagination or those with intriguing origins
- Vocabulary- building words of those with clues
Priciple 2: Relate words with other words
- Henry (1974) recommends word sorting or ” joining”. Joining allows comparing, classifying, and generalizing.
- Which four words are alike?
- He also recommends ” excluding”. It involves discrimination, negation, and rejection of words in a group.
- Which word does not belong to the group?
AUF, FEU, UST, DOH
- He also suggests ” selecting”. Selecting involves choosing and explaining reasons behind a choice. Knowledge on synonyms and antonyms helps ease this cognitive process.
- Rena’s quiet behavior was mistaken for ______.
a. shyness b. modesty c. terror
The answer is C.
- He also emphasizes ” implying”. This involves making choices based in if then course and effect relationship.
- E.g. Pedal is to bicycle as engine is to …
a. driver b. car c. wheel d. road
Principle3: Relate words with schema
- Use the words in sentences with clues regarding the meaning
- The clues must be familiar among students
- E.g. Sherlock Holmes is a famous sleuth.
a. adventurer b. scientist c. detective d. criminal
- Loud is to sound as bright is to
a. day b. music c. night d. light
Principle 4: Teach words in Pre-Reading and Post-Reading Activities
- Do the traditional unlocking of difficulties
- Use the new words learned during the post reading activities such as questions
- Use the new words learned even in retelling
Principle 5: Teach words systematically and in-depth
- Ask students to find an antonym for the world learned
- Ask the students to fill in blanks with the new words learned
- Ask students to restate definitions
- Ask students to define the word based on their experience
- Ask students to use the word in a meaningful sentence
Principle 6: Awake interest in and enthusiasm for word
- Be enthusiastic in teaching
- Use words in discussions even after the learning of a text with that word
- Tell origins and derivation of words
- Vary strategies in teaching vocabulary
- Use gadgets such as computers, cameras, and even video games in teaching
-Strategies for Vocabulary and Concept Development-
- Relating Experiences to Vocabulary Learning
- Using context for vocabulary growth
- Developing Word Meanings
- Classifying and Categorizing words
- Developing Word Meanings Through Stories and Writing
- Developing Independence in Vocabulary Learning
- Carry out the various principles of vocabulary instruction in your classroom.
- Use various strategies when teaching such as Paired-word sentence generation, Predictogram, Self-selection strategy.
- Utilize Think Sheets when facilitating group discussion.