Active comprehension-Using prior knowledge, schemata, and metacognition to construct textual meaning; fostered by using questioning during reading.
Circular story map- A visual representation using pictures to depict the sequence of events learning to the problem in a story.
Discussion webs- AA strategy used in cooperative learning that requires students to explore both sides of issues during post reading discussions before drawing conclusions.
Directed reading- Thinking activity (DR-TA)- An activity that builds critical awareness of the reader’s role and responsibility in interacting with the text through the process of predicting, verifying, judging, and extending thinking about text material.
Evaluative questions- Questions that focus on making a judgement about what is read.
Inferential questions-Questions in which the reader uses background knowledge and information from the text.
KWL- What do you know, what do you want to find out? What did you learn? Three-step teaching model designed to guide and motivate children as they read to acquire information from expository texts.
Literal questions- Questions that are based on explicitly stated information in the text.
Macrocloze stories- Stories given to students with passages deleted from the text; students read the stories and discuss the missing text either orally or in writing.. A teacher constructs cloze material by deleting single words from a passage/ Children are then given copies of cloze passage and are required to supply the missing word.
Question Answer Relationships (QARs)- A comprehension strategy that enhances children’s ability to answer comprehension questions by teaching them how to find the information they need to respond.
Questioning the Author (QtA)- A comprehension-centered instructional strategy designed to show readers how to question the author’s intent while reading.
Reciprocal teaching- An instructional strategy that builds reader’s awareness of and expertise in the use of various comprehension skills and strategies.
ReQuest- Reciprocal questioning that encourages students to ask their own questions about material they have read.
Scaffolding instruction- Instruction in which teachers model strategies step by step and provide guided practice, followed by independent practice and application.
Schema- Mental frameworks that humans use to organize and construct meaning.
Scrambled stories- Stories separated into parts and jumbled; students read stories and put them back in order.
Story frames- Skeletal paragraphs represented by sequencing of spaces ties together with transition words and connectors signaling lines of thought;frames can emphasize plot summary, setting, character analysis, character comparison and problem.
Story impressions- Prereading strategy that helps students anticipate what stories could be about, using context fragments to make predictions.
Story map- An analysis of a story’s organizational elements; used used to strengthen instructional decisions.
Think-alouds- A comprehension strategy in which students talk about their thoughts as they read aloud.
Activities to build schema for stories:
- Read, tell ans Perform stories in class
- Show Relationships Between Story Parts
- Reinforce Story knowledge Through instructional activities (macrocloze stories, scrambled stories, story frames and circular story maps)
General and specific comprehension questions:
- Text-to-Text – How do the ideas in this text remind you of another text (story, book, movie, song, etc)? Complete one of the following statements:
- What I just read reminds me of ___________________ (story/book/movie/song) because…
- The ideas in this text are similar to the ideas in ___________________ because….
- The ideas in this text are different than the ideas in ___________________ because….
- Text-to-Self – How do the ideas in this text relate to your own life, ideas and experiences? Complete one of the following statements:
- What I just read reminds me of the time when I….
- I agree with/understand what I just read because in my own life…
- I don’t agree with what I just read because in my own life…
- Text-to-World – How do the ideas in this text reading relate to the larger world – past, present and future. Complete one of the following statements:
- What I just read makes me think about _________________________ (event from the past) because……
- What I just read makes me think about _________________________ (event from today related to my own community, nation or world) because….
- What I just read makes me wonder about the future because….
-Practical Classroom Application-
- Reinforce Story knowledge through instructional activities (macrocloze stories, scrambled stories, story frames and circular story maps)
- Have time to do think alouds while students are doing a reading activity.