Print concept

  • Letters, punctuations, spaces between words and paragraphs.
  • Jargon; all the words we use to talk about reading and writing. Includes terms such as word, letter, sentence, and sound.
  • Conventions; rules about how we proved through print. Directionality of which we read the print.

Phonemic awareness:

  • Foundational skill to be taught before phonics.
  • The ability to recognize that words are made up of a discrete set of sounds and manipulate those sounds.
  • Ability to take words apart, put the back together again, and change them.
  • Ways to develop understanding of Phonemic Awareness:
  • Use names to build phonemic awareness
  • Encourage phonics spelling
  • Count words
  • Clap syllables
  • Play blending and segmenting games
  • Read and invent tongue twisters
  • Phonemic awareness refers to the ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words. The following tasks are commonly used to assess children’s PA or to improve their PA through instruction and Practice.
  • Phoneme isolation, which requires recognizing individual sounds in words, for example, “Tell me the first sound in paste.” (/p/)
  • Phoneme identity, which requires recognizing the common sound in different words. For example, “Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy, and bell.” (/b/)
  • Phoneme categorization, which requires recognizing the word with the odd sound in a sequence of three or four words, for example, “Which word does not belong? bus, bun, rug.” (rug)
  • Phoneme blending, which requires listening to a sequence of separately spoken sounds and combining them to form a recognizable word. For example, “What word is /s/ /k/ /u/ /1/?” (school)
  • Phoneme segmentation, which requires breaking a word into its sounds by tapping out or counting the sounds or by pronouncing and positioning a marker for each sound. For example, “How many phonemes are there in ship? ” (three: /š/ /I/ /p/)
  • Phoneme deletion, which requires recognizing what word remains when a specified phoneme is removed. For example, “What is smile without the /s/?” (mile)
  • Following tasks are ordered from easy (1) to difficult
  • First-sound comparison—identifying the names of pictures beginning with the same sound
  • Blending onset-rime units into real words
  • Blending phonemes into real words
  • Deleting a phoneme and saying the word that remains
  • Segmenting words into phonemes
  • Blending phonemes into nonwords.
  • Phonemic awareness is
    • the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds—phonemes—

    in spoken words.

    Phonemic awareness is important because

    • it improves children’s word reading and reading comprehension.
    • it helps children learn to spell.
    • Phonemic awareness can be developed through a number of

    activities, including asking children to

    • identify phonemes,
    • categorize phonemes,
    • blend phonemes to form words,
    • segment words into phonemes,
    • delete or add phonemes to form new words, and
    • substitute phenomes to make new words.

    Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective

    • when children are taught to manipulate phonemes by using the letters of

    the alphabet.

    • when instruction focuses on only one or two rather than several types of

    phoneme manipulation.


Concrete words

  • The words that are important to the child. Not just the common words, but ones that stick out to the child due to repetition of their use or relevance to the child’s life.


  • Any one of the parts into which a word is naturally divided when it is pronounced

Letter names and letter sounds:

  • Previous knowledge students have coming into the classroom through exposure to reading or writing.
  • Ways to teach letter names and sounds:
  • Use children’s names to teach letter names and sounds
  • Use favorite words with pure initial sounds as key words
  • The alphabet song and alphabet book
  • Letter actions= have movements for each letter = SUPER HELPFUL WEBSITE!

Building Blocks of Reading and Writing

From several decades of research, we have learned a lot about how children learn to read and write. This research tells us that to become skilled and confident readers over time, young children need lots of opportunities to:

  • build spoken language by talking and listening
  • learn about print and books
  • learn about the sounds of spoken language (this is called phonological awareness)
  • learn about the letters of the alphabet
  • listen to books read aloud

What children should be able to do by age 3: You should take the accomplishments as guidelines and not as hard-and-fast rules.

A three-year-old child . . .

  • Likes reading with an adult on a regular basis
  • Listens to stories from books and stories that you tell
  • Recognizes a book by its cover
  • Pretends to read books
  • Understands that books are handled in certain ways
  • Looks at pictures in a book and knows that they stand for real objects
  • Says the name of objects in books
  • Comments on characters in books
  • Asks an adult to read to him or to help him write
  • May begin paying attention to print such as letters in names
  • Begins to tell the difference between drawing and writing
  • Begins to scribble as a way of writing, making some forms that look like letters

·         Some helpful terms to know

  • Day care providers and preschool teachers might use some of the following terms when talking to you about how your child is learning to read. You will find that many of these terms are used in this booklet.
  • alphabetic knowledgeKnowing the names and shapes of the letters of the alphabet.
  • big booksOversized books that allow for the sharing of print and illustrations with children.
  • blendingPutting together individual sounds to make spoken words.
  • developmental spellingThe use of letter-sound relationship information to attempt to write words.
  • emergent literacyThe view that literacy learning begins at birth and is encouraged through participation with adults in meaningful reading and writing activities.
  • environmental printPrint that is a part of everyday life, such as signs, billboards, labels, and business logos.
  • experimental writingEfforts by young children to experiment with writing by creating pretend and real letters and by organizing scribbles and marks on paper.
  • invented spellingSee developmental spelling.
  • literacyIncludes all the activities involved in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and appreciating both spoken and written language.
  • phonemesThe smallest parts of spoken language that combine to form words. For example, the word hit is made up of three phonemes (/h/ /i/ /t/) and differs by one phoneme from the words pithip and hot.
  • phonemic awarenessThe ability to notice and work with the individual sounds in spoken language.
  • phonological awarenessThe understanding that spoken language is made up of individual and separate sounds. In addition to phonemes, phonological awareness activities can involve work with rhymes, words, sentences, and syllables.
  • pretend readingChildren’s attempts to “read” a book before they have learned to read. Usually children pretend read a familiar book that they have practically memorized.
  • print awarenessKnowing about print and books and how they are used.
  • segmentationTaking spoken words apart sound by sound.
  • spoken languageThe language used in talking and listening; in contrast to written language, which is the language used in writing and reading.
  • syllableA word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound (e-ventnews-pa-perpret-ty)
  • vocabularyThe words we must know in order to communicate effectively. Oralvocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening.Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print.


Practical Application

  • Use audio/songs to present elements of phonemic awareness and then discuss, explore these elements with students
  • In addition to of word walls, have examples of concepts of print on the walls. i.e. letters, punctuations, spaces between words and paragraphs.
  • Incorporate music into phonemic instruction through songs.
  • Use games.