Informational text:

  • The CCSS defines “informational text” as a broad category of nonfiction resources, including: biographies; autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts (including how-to books and procedural books); and literary nonfiction.
  • They often contain special features such as maps, photos, charts, graghs, headings, bold words and others with require special reading strategies.

What we do when we read an Informational Text: 

  • Require comprehension strategies
  • Call up and connnect relevent prior knowledge
  • Predict, question, and wonder about what will be learned
  • Visiualize and imagin
  • Monitor and use fix-up strategies
  • Summarize the most important ideas
  • Draw conclusions and make inferences
  • Evaluate and make judgements

Close reading:

  • Is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text’s form, craft, meanings, etc. It is a key requirement of the Common Core State Standards and directs the reader’s attention to the text itself.
  • The “close reading” standard states that students are expected to be able to explain what the text says explicitly and to draw inferences from the text.

Guess yes or no

  • Lesson Framework focuses your students’ attention on important details informational texts by having them predict, before they read, which statements are true and which are false, some of the statements require them to make logical inferences.
  • An example of this carried out would be: Teacher reads an article/or/book she will use for her class. She constructs 10 statements, some of which are true and some are false. She writes the false statements so they can be turned into true statements by changing a word or two. She includes some statements that require students to make logical inferences to decide whether they are true or false. She also includes key vocabulary words students need to be able to pronounce and understand to read the text fluently.

Gradual release of responsibility model

  • Is a particular style of teaching which is a structured method of pedagogy framed around a process devolving responsibility within the learning process from the teacher to the eventual independence of the learner.
  • Helpful Link: https://www.mheonline.com/_treasures/pdf/douglas_fisher.pdf

Find it or figure it out

  • Is a lesson Framework you can use to teach your students how to use the information in the text and their prior knowledge to figure things out.
  • An example of this would be; a Teacher reading the text and constructing questions for each two page spread. He makes sure the answers to the “find it” questions are quite literal and can be found “right there” in a sentence or two. He constricts the “Figure it out” questions so that they require his students to make logical inferences. The answers are not right there but there are clues that let you figure our what the answers are.

Different text structures found in informational text:

Main idea trees:

Cut out a brown tree trunk with the main idea of the reading selection. Also cut out three or four cloud shapes from green paper, label each cutout with a different supporting detail, and then glue the shapes to the tree.:

Time lines:

  • a graphic representation of the passage of time as a line.
  • Image result for timelinesImage result for Kid Timelines

 

Compare/contrast bubbles:

  • Image result for compare and contrast bubbles
  • Image result for compare and contrast bubbles

Preview-predict-confirm:

  • Lesson framework that teaches students to use the visuals in  an information text to build vocabulary and to predict about what they will read.
  • Begins with students siting in groups talking about 10 to 15 visuals for a text they will read. Students have 20 seconds to look at each visual and talk about it, and try to predict words they will read connected to the visual. Next, students have 8 minutes to write as many words as they can that they think will occur. At the end of the 8 minutes students look at their words and choose one word they think all the other groups will also have, one word they think is unique to their group and one word they are most interested in. Next the groups read the text and put a check on each word they listed that actually occurred and add five words they wish they had thought of. To end it, students share their results with one another and reflect through writing a short paragraph using as many of their words as they can to tell what they learned.
  • Helpful Resource: https://pals.virginia.edu/pdfs/activities/comprehension/preview_predict_confirm.pdf

Scavenger hunts for text features

Strategies that Promote Comprehension

  • Found on: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/strategies-promote-comprehension
    • Before Reading

      Before reading, the teacher may:

      • Motivate students through activities that may increase their interest (book talks, dramatic readings, or displays of art related to the text), making the text relevant to students in some way.
      • Activate students’ background knowledge important to the content of the text by discussing what students will read and what they already know about its topic and about the text organization.

      Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

      • Establish a purpose for reading.
      • Identify and discuss difficult words, phrases, and concepts in the text.
      • Preview the text (by surveying the title, illustrations, and unusual text structures) to make predictions about its content.
      • Think, talk, and write about the topic of the text.

      During Reading

      During reading, the teacher may:

      • Remind students to use comprehension strategies as they read and to monitor their understanding.
      • Ask questions that keep students on track and focus their attention on main ideas and important points in the text.
      • Focus attention on parts in a text that require students to make inferences.
      • Call on students to summarize key sections or events.
      • Encourage students to return to any predictions they have made before reading to see if they are confirmed by the text.

      Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

      • Determine and summarize important ideas and supportive details.
      • Make connections between and among important ideas in the text.
      • Integrate new ideas with existing background knowledge.
      • Ask themselves questions about the text.
      • Sequence events and ideas in the text.
      • Offer interpretations of and responses to the text.
      • Check understanding by paraphrasing or restating important and/or difficult sentences and paragraphs.
      • Visualize characters, settings, or events in a text.

      After Reading

      After reading, the teacher may:

      • Guide discussion of the reading.
      • Ask students to recall and tell in their own words important parts of the text.
      • Offer students opportunities to respond to the reading in various ways, including through writing, dramatic play, music, readers’ theatre, videos, debate, or pantomime.

      Students, with some help from the teacher, may:

      • Evaluate and discuss the ideas encountered in the text.
      • Apply and extend these ideas to other texts and real life situations.
      • Summarize what was read by retelling the main ideas.
      • Discuss ideas for further reading.

        Activities and procedures for use with narrative texts

      • Story maps
      • Retelling
      • Story Frames
      • Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (DRTA)2

    Activities and procedures for use with expository text

    • K-W-L3
    • Questioning the author
    • Reciprocal Teaching
    • Transitional Instruction Strategy
    • The I chart procedure

Seven Strategies to Teach Students Text Comprehension

  • Found on: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/seven-strategies-teach-students-text-comprehension
    • 1. Monitoring comprehension

      Comprehension monitoring instruction teaches students to:

      • Be aware of what they do understand
      • Identify what they do not understand
      • Use appropriate strategies to resolve problems in comprehension

      2. Metacognition

      Students may use several comprehension monitoring strategies:

      • Identify where the difficulty occurs”I don’t understand the second paragraph on page 76.”
      • Identify what the difficulty is”I don’t get what the author means when she says, ‘Arriving in America was a milestone in my grandmother’s life.'”
      • Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words”Oh, so the author means that coming to America was a very important event in her grandmother’s life.”
      • Look back through the text”The author talked about Mr. McBride in Chapter 2, but I don’t remember much about him. Maybe if I reread that chapter, I can figure out why he’s acting this way now.”
      • Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the difficulty”The text says, ‘The groundwater may form a stream or pond or create a wetland. People can also bring groundwater to the surface.’ Hmm, I don’t understand how people can do that… Oh, the next section is called ‘Wells.’ I’ll read this section to see if it tells how they do it.”

      3. Graphic and semantic organizers

      Graphic organizers can:

      • Help students focus on text structure “differences between fiction and nonfiction” as they read
      • Provide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a text
      • Help students write well-organized summaries of a text

      Here are some examples of graphic organizers:

      4. Answering questions

      Questions can be effective because they:

      • Give students a purpose for reading
      • Focus students’ attention on what they are to learn
      • Help students to think actively as they read
      • Encourage students to monitor their comprehension
      • Help students to review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know

    There are four different types of questions:

    • “Right There”Questions found right in the text that ask students to find the one right answer located in one place as a word or a sentence in the passage.Example: Who is Frog’s friend? Answer: Toad
    • “Think and Search”Questions based on the recall of facts that can be found directly in the text. Answers are typically found in more than one place, thus requiring students to “think” and “search” through the passage to find the answer.Example: Why was Frog sad? Answer: His friend was leaving.
    • “Author and You”Questions require students to use what they already know, with what they have learned from reading the text. Student’s must understand the text and relate it to their prior knowledge before answering the question.Example: How do think Frog felt when he found Toad? Answer: I think that Frog felt happy because he had not seen Toad in a long time. I feel happy when I get to see my friend who lives far away.
    • “On Your Own”Questions are answered based on a students prior knowledge and experiences. Reading the text may not be helpful to them when answering this type of question.Example: How would you feel if your best friend moved away? Answer: I would feel very sad if my best friend moved away because I would miss her.

    5. Generating questions

    By generating questions, students become aware of whether they can answer the questions and if they understand what they are reading. Students learn to ask themselves questions that require them to combine information from different segments of text. For example, students can be taught to ask main idea questions that relate to important information in a text.

    6. Recognizing story structure

    In story structure instruction, students learn to identify the categories of content (characters, setting, events, problem, resolution). Often, students learn to recognize story structure through the use of story maps. Instruction in story structure improves students’ comprehension.

    7. Summarizing

    Summarizing requires students to determine what is important in what they are reading and to put it into their own words. Instruction in summarizing helps students:

    • Identify or generate main ideas
    • Connect the main or central ideas
    • Eliminate unnecessary information
    • Remember what they read

    Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit

    • Direct explanationThe teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy.
    • ModelingThe teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by “thinking aloud” while reading the text that the students are using.
    • Guided practiceThe teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy.
    • Application

    Practical Application to the Classroom:

    I really like one of the example listed above and think it would be fun to do in my classroom someday. 

    Guess yes or no

    • Lesson Framework focuses your students’ attention on important details informational texts by having them predict, before they read, which statements are true and which are false, some of the statements require them to make logical inferences.
    • An example of this carried out would be: Teacher reads an article/or/book she will use for her class. She constructs 10 statements, some of which are true and some are false. She writes the false statements so they can be turned into true statements by changing a word or two. She includes some statements that require students to make logical inferences to decide whether they are true or false. She also includes key vocabulary words students need to be able to pronounce and understand to read the text fluently.

     

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