-Chapter 11-

How to determine a students reading level:

  • Have individual students read passages at different reading levels.
  • Passages such as:
  • The developmental reading Assessment
  • Informal Reading Inventories–Basic Reading Inventory or Quantitative Reading Inventory
  • Graded Passages

What are good literacy behaviors:

  • Book handling- turning pages, mouthing or chewing books
  • Looking and recognizing – paying attention to pictures, pointing, laughing
  • Picture and story comprehension – imitating actions or talking about the story
  • Story reading – pretending to read or following the words with their fingers
  • http://www.state.me.us/msl/libs/pr/posters/lit/earlyLit-newsletter.pdf
  • Blend and sort words
  • Track print
  • Word Identification
  • Comprehension
  • Writing

How do you document student progress:

  • Checklists
  • Anecdotal Notes

Assessing students in comprehension:

  • Monitor and assess your students’ development of comprehension behaviors as you interact with them during comprehension lessons and in your independent reading conferences.
  • Take anecdotal notes of students who may have trouble comprehending and observe these students more frequently.
  • Ask them comprehension questions after they have read a passage.

Assessing Writing:

  • Observe writing as you move around the classroom, record your findings.
  • During the first weeks of school, have students do a focused writing sample Give students a prompt to which they can relate. Analyze the samples and document progress over the school year. In the course of a year, have the student write about the topic they picked at the beginning of the year and use this as evidence of progress.
  • Use Checklists.

Assessing Interests:

  • Ask students to bring their 3 favorite books to school. Have students share what they like about the books or the content in them.
  • Allow students to go to the library if they don’t have their favorite book at home.
  • Anecdotal notes throughout the school year.
  • Document students progress, consider doing a reading attitude assessments such as the “Reading and Me”. This can be done beginning, middle and end of the year.

Word identification strategies:

  • Observe students, reading and writing.
  • Do weekly independent reading conferences with children, ask them to read aloud a short part of what they have chosen to share with you, listen to their fluency, and other cues to figure out unknown words.
  • Take Anecdotal notes on observations of students reading out loud, strengths and weaknesses.
  • Look through students writing notebooks for patterns in spelling errors
  • Examine a writing sample to gain information about phonics knowledge, record all words misspelled and how the word was spelled.

-Chapter 12-

How can you differentiate:

  • Have multicultural books throughout your classroom.
  • Have a variety of materials to read.
  • During weekly independent reading conferences, spread struggling readers conferences throughout the day and spend an extra minute or two with them steering them in the right direction of materials at their optional reading level.
  • During Independent reading/writing: letting students choose what they want to read/write.
  • Engage students in rereading through choral reading, echo reading, and reading along with recorded books.
  • Having word walls visible.

Interventions for struggling readers:

  • Teach essential skills and strategies.
    Effective reading teachers teach skills, strategies, and concepts.
  • Provide differentiated instruction based on assessment results and adapt instruction to meet students’ needs.
    Effective teachers recognize that one size doesn’t fit all and are ready to adapt instruction—both content and methods.
  • Provide explicit and systematic instruction with lots of practice—with and without teacher support and feedback, including cumulative practice over time.
    Students should not have to infer what they are supposed to learn.
  • Provide opportunities to apply skills and strategies in reading and writing meaningful text with teacher support.
    Students need to be taught what to do when they get to a “hard word.”
  • Don’t just “cover” critical content; be sure students learn it—monitor student progress regularly and reteach as necessary.
    Effective teachers adjust their teaching accordingly to try to accelerate student progress.
  • http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/tieredinstruction/tier1/effectiveteaching

Areas for struggling readers:

  • Comprehension
  • Oral Reading/Fluency
  • Thinking Strategies

Targeted Tier 2 instruction:

  • For children who are not making adequate progress in spite of focused and differentiated classroom instruction.
  • Instruction is often delivered in small groups or tutoring formats and is targeted to specific instructional needs.
  • Use of the 7 thinking strategies: http://theliteracyconnection.weebly.com/7-thinking-strategies.html
  • Comprehension Scale
  • Oral Reading Fluency Scale


  • Having multicultural books throughout my classroom as a way to differentiate cultures/backgrounds.