Part 1 of 4: Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching

       1. Based upon the position of the lesson within its unit, identify students’ prior learning, prerequisite skills, and understanding of the subject or content area related to the central focus of the lesson being taught.  What do students know, what can they do, and what are they learning to do?  What standards are you building upon? Identify your scope and sequence.

The central focus of this lesson is listening/responding to literature through comparison and contrasting events and elements in the literature that are present or absent in the students classroom. This lesson also aids in comprehension through linking the students personal interests and observations to the literature. The student will be able to make inferences throughout the book that aid in their ability to comprehend the literature. The students prior learning to best participate in this lesson includes how the students must understand that print carries meaning, student must be able to listen to a story being read and the student will know how to respond appropriately to questions. The student will be able to ask questions throughout the story, comparing and contrasting their classroom experience and the one in the book. In the week that this lesson is being taught and the week prior the students are learning about comparing and contrasting. I am teaching this lesson because it is building upon what they are learning through tangible examples that are relevant to their lives as individuals. The students understand how to make basic comparisons and understand the concept of contrasting when looking at two different stories. The students know how to look at a Venn diagram and answer the teachers prompting questions of, for example, “What classroom has books?” The students are able to recognize that there were books listed in the story and they also have books in their classroom. The students are also able to make general observations as well such as; “We do not have a classroom pet, but the classroom in the book did.”  However, a new concept being introduced through this lesson the teacher is modeling and encouraging the students to ask questions as they are listening to the to literature. Through this, the students are learning how to use the question strategy to aid in their comprehension of the literature. The standards that are being built upon; ELA-LITERACY.RL.K.10-Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. This will be done through the students actively listening to the book and responding to comprehension questions. The students will actively be looking for elements in the literature that are similar or different from their own classroom, which makes the learning relevant to their lives. This adds purpose and engagement from the students when they can relate to what is being taught. The students will be asking questions about the literature throughout the book . Another standard being built upon throughout this lesson will be; ELA-LITERACY.RL.K.1- With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. The students will be asked comprehension questions throughout this lesson about detail in the literature.The students will also be provided with opportunities to share their own questions throughout reading the literature to provide a greater understanding for them which will enhance their ability to comprehend the material. This lesson corresponds to scope and sequence of kindergarten through listening and speaking in allowing the students to share their ideas. Also through the Text-based comprehension through having the students compare and contrast.

2. Identify the personal/cultural/community assets (see your edTPA Handbook for definitions, if needed) related to the central focus of the lesson.  What do you know about your students’ everyday experiences, cultural backgrounds and practices, and interests?

The students of this urban, public elementary school have a predominantly Caucasian population. Within this particular school there are 373 students, 89% of the students are Caucasian, 5% are two or more ethnic descent, 4% are African American, 1% are Asian, and 1% are Hispanic. Of these students 48% are at a socioeconomic status where they are eligible and qualify for free or reduced lunch. 11% of the students throughout this school have a disability and 89% do not.  There are no students with IEPs, and none on 504 plans in the classroom that I am teaching in. One of the students in the particular Kindergarten class that this learning segment is being taught in, is doing a repeat of kindergarten due to missing a significant amount of schooling during the 2015-16 school year. Many of the students in this kindergarten class stay for the after school program each day. Students interests are high in the area of recreational entertainment through technology, whether it be videos, tablets, iPads or computer related.  Students share their enjoyment of music throughout the classroom, as music is integrated in much of their learning through songs and dance. The students enjoy playing outside and playing with their friends on the play ground. The students in this particular learning segment all have English as their primary language and non are of migrant status. These students are divided up into RTI (Response to Intervention) groups Monday through Thursday. The students are divided into three tiers based on their mastery of phonological, phonemic and phonics awareness. There are no known connections of socioeconomic or ethnic status linked to where children are placed. However, the students whose parents are involved and read with them appear to be in the more advanced tiers based on their regular practice of the material. All of the students in the particular Kindergarten class that this learning segment is being taught enjoy literature and have the ability to discuss the literature at basic levels. This lesson is related to these students because it is not only relevant to their lives, but it also is building upon their developing comprehension, questioning and discussion skills.

Teacher Feedback


Excellent job of describing what the student know and what has previously been taught. Great use of academic vocabulary. Well written response to 2a. However, you need to also address the students on IEP’s, 504’s and other groups of learners. I see that you do address this in the second prompt. Make sure you state there are no students on IEP’s, 504’s, etc in the class. If you don’t I assume you didn’t know you were supposed to include it.

Wow, great job on the research of the schools population Abigail! The second prompt is filled with great information, you now have to tie it to how this relates to the learning segment. You do this in the last statement, but it would have been beneficial to talk about how you’re integrating recreational entertainment into the lesson, how you’re building on what they are learning in their RTI groups, etc.

Part 2 of 4: Planning-Supporting Student Learning

1. Explain how your understanding of your students’ prior learning and personal/cultural/community assets guided your choice or adaptation of learning tasks and materials.

  • [After observing the students, I was able to gain an understanding of my students’ strengths, areas of needed growth, prior knowledge, and areas of behavior management. My goal in this lesson was to create a lesson to build upon the students prior knowledge through application of their prior knowledge. I wanted to create a lesson that was inclusive to all learners and could be adapted to meet every learners needs  All students in this  classroom have unique backgrounds, experiences and ideas to share. I was able to collaborate with the cooperating teacher, and through this was able to create a lesson that meet the need for diverse instruction to ensure that each and every student will meet the learning objectives for my lesson. Through observation, I noticed that all the students are eager to share and desire to be successful. When I was creating this lesson, I wanted every child to have the opportunity to practically apply what they are learning in comparing and contrasting. I know that they students have the capacity and ability to engage in a discussion and answer/ask questions relating to literature. Knowledge of this helped in creating my lesson plan. ]

2. Justify why your instructional strategies and planned supports are appropriate for the students with whom you are working. Use principles from research and/or theory to support/defend the instructional decisions you made during the planning stage of your lesson.  Use APA to format references. 

  • There is diversity in academic ability within this learning community. However, in the classroom for which I am working, all of the students first/primary language is English, there are no IEPs, socioeconomic factors do not seam to play big factors into the students learning. Over all, the students in the classroom that I am working are capable and able to stay on task with no special education services, the student just need to be redirected at times. In creating this lesson, I am building upon the students prior knowledge of the idea of comparing and contrasting and allowing them to apply what they have learned. Through this, I am providing opportunities for students to prove their competence and success in successfully comparing and contrasting their classroom to the one in the book. This goes along with Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority stage, where school and home provide opportunities for students to develop a sense of competence through success on challenging tasks (Eggen, P., & D. K., 2015, pg. 95). By knowing my students and their prior knowledge I knew they would be able to participate actively. I also incorporate modeling of the questioning comprehension strategy to potentially aid in students comprehension of the literature through forming inferences throughout the book.

3. Describe common preconceptions (based on prior learning and experiences) within your content focus that your students may have and how you will identify and address them.

  • The students may have the misconception that they can speak out and share their thoughts and opinions at any time, this is due to students at this age still being slightly egocentric and very focused on themselves. It could also be related to their parents allowing them to be in control and speak whenever they want. I would address this misconception through reminding students that I would love to hear what they have to say. However, I need them to raise their hands because I cannot understand what they are saying when they all talk at once and it is rude to interrupt the teacher. There could also be a misconception that books are merely stories. The students may not intellectually understand that literature can be related to their lives and that they can compare and contrast elements of the literature with elements of their life. This could be due to their basic understanding that print carries meaning, but they haven’t grasped how much meaning it can carry. I could correct this misconception through merely carrying out the lesson and after the students have compared elements of their classroom to the one in the book, point out that literature carries so much meaning and we can often relate it to our own lives.


Eggen, P., & D. K. (2015). Educational Psychology Enhanced Pearson Etext Access Card Windows on Classrooms (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson College Div.

Teacher Feedback:

3a. looks good, make sure you explicitly say what the learning task is, the associated learning and just include the research and how it supports your choice

3b. good, even though you don’t have any students on IEP’s, there must be lower students, what supports are you putting into place for those students?

3c. excellent and so true!

Part 3 of 4: Planning-Supporting Development through Language

Language Demand: Language Function. Identify one language function essential for student learning within your central focus.  Examples include, but are not limited to, analyze, explain, interpret, justify with evidence, compare/contrast, construct, describe, evaluate, examine, identify, and locate.  The edTPA handbook provides elaboration on language function.

Analyze Argue Categorize Compare/contrast Describe Explain
Interpret Predict Question Retell Summarize Construct
Classify Evaluate Examine Justify with Evidence Identify Locate
  • The central focus of this lesson is listening/responding to literature through comparison and contrasting events and elements in the literature that are present or absent in the students classroom. Throughout this lesson, the students will be asked questions and ask questions relating to the literature. They might what would happen next in the book or why certain details were in place. This helps them in their comparison and contrasting their classroom to the classroom in the story. When a student describes a way that they think their classroom is similar to the one in the book, I will ask them to explain their statements further by providing example. Such as;” They read in their classroom and so do we.” “What do you read in your classroom that they might read in theirs?” As I read the book, there will be a lot of questions and connections being made by the children. When I complete reading. I will ask the children to retell bits of the story through listing off the things that were in the classroom in the book that are not in our classroom and vise versa.

Identify a key learning task from your plans that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function you identified.  For example, if you selected examine, identify the key task when students will learn how to examine or will be expected to examine. 

  • Throughout reading the literature, students are to make observations about what was similar or different about the classroom in the book compared to their own classroom. This allows students to compare and contrast elements and details in their classroom with the classroom in the book. I will ask the students questions throughout the reading to promote their comprehension of the material and encourage them to ask questions to themselves as they listen to aid in comprehension. Students will be making connections to the literature through explaining ways in which their classroom is similar or different to the classroom being read about. The students will be asked to provide concrete examples in their explanations. i.e. We both have a purple rug in our classroom. They have pets in their classroom, however, we do not have any pets in our classroom. The students will be asked to retell details and elements that were present in the literature when they provide examples of similarities and differences between their classroom and the one in the book. The students will be asked to list their favorite part in the book and then be asked what they liked about it and why it was their favorite. This will provide further reflection and possibility to retell more elements of the literature.

Teacher Feedback


Use the thinking organizer to write this section, it shows you how you need to address 4 different areas in the one response. It also gives you specific wording for the commentary. You’re looking at 4a-d

Part 4 of 4: Planning-Monitoring Student Learning

Refer to the assessments you propose to align with this lesson’s learning objectives.  Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence of students’ understanding of the concepts taught throughout the learning segment.   Use principles from research and/or theory to support/defend the assessment decisions you made during the planning stage of your lesson. 

  • My objective was; The student will listen attentively to the book and be able to respond appropriately to comprehension questions. Throughout my lesson I will be modeling the questioning comprehension strategy and asking my students questions in order to encourage them to use this strategy in their reading. I believe this will engage students and give them more reason to listen attentively as I read. I did this as an informal assessment to see if student would be able to ask questions relevant to the literature to deepen their comprehension of the material to better equip them for retelling the information at the end. The academic literature, Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies provides some support to defend my reasoning through the following statements; “Asking probing and hint questions facilitate elaboration and sequencing questions which helps scaffold learning” (McNamara, D. S. 2007, pg. 281). “We believe questioning is a consequence of internal motivation for reading, as well as cognitive competence in forming questions” (McNamara, D. S. 2007, pg. 262)
  • For formal assessment, I will have my students list elements of the book they comprehended through comparing and contrasting the classroom in the book to their classroom. This will be my assessment; For whole class, I will have them draw a picture of one way their class is the same as the one in the book, and one way that they are different. This would also work for assessing individual students. I would be assessing the students ability to compare and contrast elements in the story to their classroom, which was the main focus of my lesson. in addition to assessing my students recall of similarities in the classroom and the differences.


McNamara, D. S. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Teacher Feedback

5a. You may want to say, “I informally assessed my students throughout the learning segment in…this assessment provides evidence of student mastery by…”

5b. what about the adaptations? If I remember, you may not have any students. In the future, just make it up, so you get practice responding to everything.